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REPORT 



ON THE PROPOSED 



TRUNK LINE OF RAILWAY 



FROM AN EASTERN PORT iN NOVA SCOTIA, 

THROUGH NEW BRUNSWICK, 

TO QUEBEC. 



BY MAJOR WILLIAM ROBINSON, 

CAPTAIN, ROYAL ENGINEERS. 



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© 1 1 a u) a : 
PRINTED BY HUNTER, ROSE & COMPANY. 

1868. 



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The EDITH and LORNE PIERCE 
COLLECTION of CANADI ANA 




ilueen's University at Kingston 



U(^' 



REPORT 



ON TnE PROPOSED 



TRUNK LINE OF RAILWAY 



FEOM AN EASTERN PORT IN NOVA SCOTIA, 

THROUGH NEW BRUNSWICK, 

TO QUEBEC. 



BY MAJOR WILLIAM ROBINSON', 

CAPTAIN, ROTAL ENGINEERS. 



31tJrintt5f iij> ^x^tK of t^e i^ou^e of ©ommoii^. 




(D 1 1 a U) a : 
PRINTED BY HUNTER, ROSE k COMPANY. 

1868. 



MESSAGE. 



ELGIN AND KINCARDINE. 

The Governor General transmits, for the information of the Legis- 
lative Assembly, copies of the Despatches from Her Majesty's Secretary 
of State for the Colonies, enumerated in the annexed Schedule. 

Government House, 

30th January, 1849. 



SCHEDULE. 



f^ 

i 



Earl Grey to the 
r- Earl of Elgin... 



X 
*0 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



NO. 



;^" 



166 

167 
1T5 
186 
252 

299 

Military 
lU 
202 

206 

231 



1848. 
11th February.. . 

11th February. .. 

6th March 

31st March 

7th July 

17th November... 

MBthSept.... ) 
( 22nd Dec. .. ) 
24th February... 

20th April 

29th April 

15th June 



Customs^ Act — Assented to by the Queen — with letter 
from Treasury and the Board of Trade, respecting it. 

Bitto — With Memorial from certain Iron Founders. 

Ditto — "With Memorial from certain Glasgow Merchants. 

Ditto — Views of Her Majesty's Governmeni. 

Respecting the Canada Act, to extend Copy-right to 
persons resident in the United Kingdom. 

Halifax and Quebec Railroad — Transmitting Report of 
Commissioners, and desiring to be informed of the 
views of the Provincial Legislature. 

Respecting the necessity of exempting from duty^ articles 
imported for the Military Service, 

Respecting the Montreal and Lachine, and the St. Law- 
rence and Industry Railway Acts. 

Enclosing Order of the Queen in Council, confirming 
seven reserved Railway Bills of 1847, and pointing 
out amendments required. 

Reporting the confirmation of certain Acts, and sug- 
gesting amendments to the Acts for incorporating the 
Montreal and Echo Lake Mining Companies. 

Suprgesting amendments to the Act incorporating th« 
Western Telegraph Company. 



REPORT 



ON THE 



PROPOSED TRUNK LINE OF RAILWAY 

FROM AN EASTERN PORT IN NOVA SCOTIA, THROUGH NEW 
BRUNSWICK, TO QUEBEC. 



Halifax, Nota Scotia, 

August 31, 1848. 

Three principal lines or routes for a trunk line of railway present themselves for con- 
sideration ; and by combining portions of two of these lines together, a fourth and fifth 
route may be formed. 

1st. Commencing at Halifax and crossing the Province of Nova Scotia to a port in the 
Bay of Fundy, from thence by a steamer to St. John, in New Brunswick, and then by 
Fredericton along the St. John River, to the G-rand Falls. 

From the Grand Falls by the best practicable route across to the mouth of the Riviere 
du Loup, on the St. Lawrence, and by the right bank of the St. Lawrence to Quebec. 

The distance by this route would be as follows : — 

Miles. 

Halifax to Windsor 45 

Windsor to Annapolis 85 

Annapolis to entrance Bay of Fundy 11 

A«cross Bay of Fundy to St. John (by sea) 45 

St. John to Fredericton 65 

Fredericton to Woodstock 62 

Woodstock to the Grand Falls 71 

The Grand Falls to the mouth of the Riviere du Loup 106 

Riviere du Loup to Quebec 110 

Total distance, Halifax by the St. John River to Quebec 600 

This line may be termed a rnixed route — by railway and steamboat. 

2nd. Commencing at Halifax and running to Truro at the head of the Bay of Fundy, 
thence over the Cumberland Mountains to Amherst, then along the coast from Bay Yerte 
to Shediac, thence by a north-westerly course, crossing the Rivers Richibucto and Mirami- 
chi, above the flow of the tide, so as not to interfere with the navigation. 

Then by the valley of the North-western Miramichi to Bathurst, on the Bay Chaleurs, 
along the cost of this bay to the Restigouche River, and by it and the valley of the River 
Metapedia to the St, Lawrence, and by the right bank of the St. Lawrence to Quebec. 

The distance by this route would be as follows : — 



Miles. 

Halifax to Truro 55 

Truro to Amherst and Bay Verte 69 

Bay Verte to Shediac , 26 

Shediac to Miramichi River 74 

Miramichi River to Bathursfc , 56 

Bathurst to the Eel River, near Dalhousie 48 

Balhousie to the mouth of the Metapedia River 30 

Metapedia River to the mouth of the Naget River, near the St. 

Lawrence 86 

Along the St. Lawrence from this point to Quebec, 191 



Total distance by this route 635 

This, for the sake of reference, may be called the Halifax and Eastern or Bay Chaleurs 
Route, through New Brunswick to Quebec. 

3rd. Commencing at the harbour of Whitehaven, near Canso, at the north-eastern 
extremity of Nova Scotia, thence along the Atlantic Coast to Country Harbour and Valley 
of the River St. Mary, thenco by or near to Pictou and along the northern shore to Bay 
Verte. 

From Bay Verte to or near the Bend of Petitcodiac, thence across to Boistown, and 
northerly to the Restigouche River, crossing it several miles to the east of Grand Falls. 

From thence by the most direct and practical course to the Trois Pistoles River, and 
along the right bank of the St. Lawrence to Quebec. 

The distance by this route would be nearly as follows : — 

Miles. 

Whitehaven to Country Harbour 40 

Country Harbour to St. Mary's Valley and Pictou 64 

Pictou and along the coast to Bay Verte 77 

Bay Verte to Bend of Petitcodiac 40 

Petitcodiac to Boistown 80 

Boistown to the crossing of the Restigouche River 115 

Restigouche River to Trois Pistoles, by the Kedgwick and Rimouski 

Valley 105 

Along the St. Lawrence to Quebec 131 



Total distance from Whitehaven by Boistown to Quebec 652 

This nay be termed the Direct Route. 

4th. Combining the Halifax route through Nova Scotia, and the direct route through 
the centre of New Brunswick. 

The distances will be probably as under : — 

Miles. 

From Halifax by Truro and Amherst to Bay Verte, | ^^^ f In Nova 

as per Route No. 2 ) *" \ Scotia. 

Bay Verte to the Bend of Petitcodiac, Boistown, Res- \ 935 ( In New 

tigouche River, as per Route No. 3 f (Brunswick. 

By the Kedgwick and Rimouski, to the mouth of the \ ^r ^ 

Torcadi j ' | 

Mouth of the Torcadi to the crossing of the Trois | ^q )-ln Canada. 

Pistoles River j | 

Along the St. Lawrence River to Quebec 131 J 

Total distance from Halifax to Quebec by this route... 595 

5th. Combining the Whitehaven Route through Nova Scotia, with the Eastern or 
Bay Chaleurs Route through New Brunswick to Quebec, the distances will be as under : — 



Miles. 

From Whitehaven by Pictou and the North Coast to | iqi | ^^ Nova 

Bay Verte, as in Koute No.3 j { Scotia. 

From Bay Verte to the Bay Chaleurs, and mouth of ^ 034 J ^^ ^^^ 

the Metapedia, as in Route No. 2 j [Brunswick. 

Mouth of the Metapedia River to the mouth of the Naget 86 ) j p-„„ j» 

Along the St. Lawrence to Quebec 191 j 

Total distance from Whitehaven to Quebec by this route 692 
Thus the distances will be as under: — 

Miles. 
1st. By the mixed route, Halifax to Annapolis, by the St. John to 

Q'lebec, the distance will be 600 

2nd. By the Halifax and Eastern, or Bay Chaleurs Route, to Quebec... 635 

3rd. By the lirecl Route, Whitehaven, Boistown and Quebec 652 

4th. By the Halifax, Truro, Amherst and Boistown, to Quebec .. 595 

5th. By the Whitehaven, Bay Verte and Bay Chaleurs, to Quebec. . . . 692 

The first line fails in the most essential object contemplated by the proposed Railway, 
viz., a free and uninterrupted communication at all times and seasons of the year, from the 
port of arrival on the Atlantic terminus in Nova Scotia to Quebec. 

The intervention of the Bay of Fundy is fatal to this route. 

In summer the transhipment of passengers and goods to and fro would be attended 
with the greatest inconvenience — loss of time and additional expense; whilst in winter it 
would be even still more inconvenient, and liable to be interrupted by storms and the 
floating masses of ice which then occur in the bay. 

In the case of the conveyance of troops, transport of artillery and munitions of war, 
the crossing the bay would at any time be most objectionable, and if suddenly required in 
critical times might be attended with the worst consequences. 

Commercially, too, it would destroy the fair prospect of the proposed line from Quebec 
to Halifax competing successfully with the route by the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, and 
with rival lines in the neighbouring States. 

But there are also other serious objections to be offered against it. 

Passing through New Brunswick and on the right bank of the St. John River, as 
it must necessarily do, to the Grand Falls, it would for a considerable distance, both befpre 
and after the reaching of that point, run along and close to the frontier of the United 
States. 

In case of war, therefore, or in times of internal commotion, when border quarrels or 
border sympathies are excited, this line, when most needed, would be the most sure to fail, 
for no measures could be taken which would at all times effectually guard it from an open 
enemy and from treacherous attacks. 

The passage across the Bay of Fundy so close to the shores of Maine, would invite 
aggression, and require a large naval force for its protection. 

The engineering difl&culties as the line approaches the Grand Falls from Woodstock 
would not be easily overcome. 

The space between the St. John River and the Boundary Line becomes gradually 
contracted to a width of not more than two or three miles, and the country is broken and 
rough, whilst the banks of the St. John are rocky and precipitous for many miles below 
the Falls. 

From the Grand Falls to the St. Lawrence, a distance of more than a hundred miles, 
the country is so far known as to make it certain that there is very difficult and unfavor- 
able ground to be encountered, which would require careful explorations and extensive 
surveying. 

This intervention of the Bay of Fundy, therefore, and the proximity of this line for a 
considerable distance to the frontier of the United States, was so objectionable and fatal 
to this route, that the attention of the officers and the exploring parties was, after a slight 
examination of the country between Halifax and Annapolis, directed in search of other 
and more favorable lines. 



To understand the comparative advantages possessed by the other routes as well as to 
be able to weigh the objections which may be raised against each, and afterwards de- 
termine from their relative merits, which is the best direction for the proposed line to take, 
it will be necessary, previously, to give some description of the country through which the 
lines pass, the present amount and distribution of the population, and the engineering dif- 
ficulties which were met with along the lines examined. 

As it will be seen in the end, that only one of the lines, viz., the second, has been 
explored and carried out successfully from its terminus on the Atlantic quite through to 
Quebec, it may be perhaps considered superfluous to enter upon the discussion of rival 
lines, but the object to be gained by so doing, is to show that so much has been done, and 
is known of the country as to render further explorations for new lines unnecessary, because, 
if completed, they would not be likely to be recommended in preference to the one which 
will be proposed for adoption. 

The distance from the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, to the bank of the St. Lawrence 
is about 360 miles in a straight line. Intersecting the country which must be traversed 
by any line of railway and crossing its course at right angles, are_/ti;c great olstacles which 
have to be either surmounted or avoided : — 

1. Is a broad range or belt of high and broken land which runs along the Atlantic 
shores of Nova Scotia, from Cape Canso to Cape Sable. The breadth varies from about 
twenty miles in its narrowest part up to fifty or sixty miles in other places. Its average 
height may be about five hundred feet. The strata of which it is composed consist of 
granite, slate, and a variety of rocks, hard and dijQSicult to cut through. The characteristic 
features of the surface are rugged and uneven, and therefore very unfavorable for railway 
operations. No useful minerals of the metallic kind have been found in it, in quantities 
sufficient to work to advantage. 

Valuable quarries of stone for building purposes are abundant, but these will be found 
everywhere nearly along the proposed line. 

This formation is estimated to cover nearly two-thirds of the surface of Nova Scotia. 
It is, generally speaking, unfavorable for agriculture ; the timber on it is stinted in growth, 
and it is an object of some importance to pass through it and leave it behind as soon as 
possible. 

If a line be drawn from the head of the estuary of the Avon, near Windsor, to the 
Great Shubenacadie Lake, and then across the Steniacke River, along the upper parts of 
the streams in the County of Pictou, to the Gut of Canso, all the portion lying to the 
south of this line belongs to this formation, and all to the north of it to the more favorable 
and highly valuable formation of the carboniferous system. 

The narrowest and shortest line by which this range or belt can be crossed occurs at 
Halifax, and at the same time, owing to a favorable break in the chain, at the lowest point 
in altitude ; the summit level through it not exceeding ninety feet. 

The Ilalilax line fKoute No. 2) is clear of it in twenty miles. Before the same can 
be done by the Whitehaven and Direct line (lloute No. 3), it must follow the coast for 
upwards of thirty miles, as far as Country Harbour, and then a further course across it of 
another thirty miles ; involving in this distance two if not three tunnels, and must 
surmount a summit level of 400 feet. 

2. The second great obstacle is the Bay of Fundy. This, as is stated, is fatal to the 
first route. By the other routes it can be turned and avoided. 

3. The third obstacle is the range of Cobcquid Hills. These extend all along the 
north shore of the Bay of Minas and very nearly acrosis but not quite to the shore of the 
Straits of Northumberlond. In breadth the range preserves nearly an uniform with of 
about ten miles. In altitude the hills average from 800 to 1000 feet. The lowest point, 
after a careful survey, was found to be at the Folly Luke, 600 feet above the sea. This 
range can be avoided and passed by the AVhitehaven and Direct Route, but must be sur- 
mounted and crossed over by the Halifax and Eastern line (Route No. 2). 

The prevailing rocks are granite, porphyry, and clay slate, in the upper portions ; 
along the shores of the Bay of Minas and on the northern side, the formation is of the 
red sandstone and the coal measures. 

This range abounds with the most valuable minerals, of which a large mass of specular 



iron ore, of unequalled ricliness, occurs close to the line, and only requires facility of 
carriage for bringing coals to tlie spot, to be worked with profit. 

A large portion of this tract still remains ungranted, and timber of excellent growth, 
with abundance of the finest st.ue for buildiog purposes, are to be met with, and still 
belonging to the Crown, can be had for the expense of labour only. 

4. The fourth obstacle is the broad and extensive range of highlands which occupies 
nearly the whole space in the centre of New Brunswick, from the Miramichi River, north 
to the Kestigouche. Some of these mountains rise to an altitude exceediog 2,000 feet. 

The Tobique River runs through them, forming a deep valley or trough, which must 
be crossed by the direct line, and increases greatly the difficulty of passing by them. 

The lowest point of the ridge overlooking the Tobique River, at which any line of 
railway must pass is 1,216 feet above the sea. Then follows a descent to the river of 796 
feet in 18 miles, and the summit level on the opposite ridge or crest between the Tobique 
and Restigouche waters, is 920 feet above the sea, or a rise of 500 feet above the point of 
crossing at the Tobique water. These great summit levels, which must be surmounted, 
form a serious objection to this route. 

The Eastern line, by the coast, avoids this chain altogether. The greatest, summit 
level along it will not be above 368 feet, while the distance by each, from the Province 
line to Bay Verte to the Restigouche River (the northern limit of New Brunswick) will 
be, as nearly as possible, the same, there being only a difi'erence of one mile in these two 
routes through this Province. 

The rocks composing this chain of mountains are granite, various kinds of slates, 
grauwacke, limestone, sandstone, &c. 

5. The fifth and last obstacle to be overcome, and which cannot be avoided by any 
of the routes, is the mountain range running along the whole course of the River St. 
Lawrence in a very irregular line, but at an average distance from it of about twenty niiles. 
It occupies, with its spurs and branches, a large portion of the space between the St. 
Lawrence and the Restigouche River. The rocks and strata composing the range are of 
the same character and kind as the Tobique range. The tops of the mountains are as 
elevated in the one range as in the other. 

The exploring parties failed in finding a line through this range, to join on to the 
direct line through New Brunswick, but succeeded in carrying on the Eastern or Bay 
Chaleurs Route, owing to the fortunate intervention of the valley of the Metapediac River. 

The line which was tried, and failed, was across from the Trois Pistoles River, by the 
heads of Green River, and down the Pseudy, or some of the streams in that part, running 
into the Restigouche River. 

A favorable line from the Trois Pistoles was ascertained along the Eagle Lake and 
Torcadi River, as far as the Rimouski ; and it is probable that by ascending this river, 
and descending the Kedgwick River, this line, Route No. 4, could be completed. 

But it is most improbable that it could compete in favorable grades with the Meta- 
pedia. 

It will be allowing it sufficient latitude to suppose it will be equal in engineering 
merits ; and that, if accomplished, it will give the Route No. 4 an apparent advantage of 
forty miles in distance. 

A very striking characteristic in the geological formation of North America, and 
which has been noticed in the writings of persons who have described the country, is the 
tendency of the rock strata to run in parallel ridges in courses north-easterly and south- 
westerly. 

On referring to the General Map No. 1, and confining the attention more particularly 
to that portion of country east and north of the St. John River through which any line 
must pass — this general tendency cannot fail to be remarked. 

The River St. Lawrence — the main Restigouche River and intermediate chain of 
mountains — the Tobique River and mountains — all the streams in New Brunswick (the 
main trunk of St. John and a branch of the Miramichi excepted). 

The Cobequid Range, the Bay of Fundy, and the high and rocky range along the 
Atlantic shore, have all this north-eastern and south-western tendency. 

It will be evident, therefore, that any line from the coast of Nova Scotia to the St. 



10 



Lawrence has a general direction to follow, whicli is the most unfavorable that could have 
occurred for it, having to cross all these mountain ranges, streams, and valleys at right 
angles nearly to their courses. 

The lines explored for the Direct Route through New Brunswick were obliged, on 
this account, to keep the elevated ground crossing the upper parts of the streams. 

By so doing, a line was found to the Restigouche which may be considered just within 
the limits of practicability, but having very unfavorable summit levels to surmount. 

And the peculiar formation of the strata, and general course of the valley and streams, 
renders it most improbable that any further explorations to improve this direct line 
through New Brunswick would be attended \\ith much success. 

Very fortunately for the Eastern line, one of the branches of the north-western Mira- 
michi presented itself as an exception to the general tendency, and enabled that line to 
reach the coast of the Bay Chaleurs. 

The distance across, in a direct line, from the coast 'of Nova Scotia to the St. Law- 
rence, has been stated at about 360 miles, forming the difficult and unfavorable portion of 
the line. When the St. Lawrence mountains are passed, then the tendency of the strata 
and courses north-easterly and south-westerly becomes as favorable for the remaining 200 
miles along that river as it was before adverse. 

The general character of the ground between the St. Lawrence River and the 
mountains, is that of irregular terraces or broad valleys, rising one above another by steep 
short banks, having the appearance as if the river had at some former periods higher levels 
for its waters. 

The streams run along these valleys parallel with the course of the St. Lawrence, 
until, meeting some obstruction, they turn suddenly off, and find their way over precipices 
and falls to the main river. 

Having described such of the physical features of the country which form obstacles 
in the way of the lines under consideration, it is proper next to describe those features 
and other resources which are advantages, and should be sought for by competing lines. 

The geological systems which prevail through the intermediate country to the moun- 
tain ranges are the carboniferious and new red sandstone. 

They include large deposits of red marl, limestone, gypsum, freestone of excellent 
quality for building purposes, and extensive beds of coal. Indications of the latter are 
met with in abundance from the banks of Gay's River, (twenty miles from Halifax,) up to 
the Rpstigouche River, and along the shores of the Bay Chaleurs. 

Wherever these systems and minerals are found, a strong and productive soil, favor- 
able for agricultural pursuits and settlement, is sure to accompany them. The surface 
of such a country, too, is generally low, or moderately undulating, and therefore the more 
of such a district that a line can be led through, the better for it. 

In Nova Scotia this formation occupies its northern section, and amounts to nearly 
one-third of its whole area. It then extends all over the southern and eastern parts of 
New Brunswick. 

In this respect, therefore, the Route No. 2 has a decided advantage. 

The greatest and most valuable coal-field is that of Pictou. 

It is situated on the south side of that harbour. The exact extent of the bed is not 
known, as it is broken by a great (geological) fault. It occupies, however, an area of many, 
square miles. 

The coal is bituminous, of good quality, and the veins of most unusual thickness. 

Mines in it are extensively worked, and large exports from them are made to the 
United States. Iron ore is abundant. 

This is an advantage in favor of the Whitehaven and Direct Route. 

The next great coal district is the Cumberland field, and it is second only in import- 
ance to that of Pictou. 

It is supposed to extend from the Macon River, west of Amherst, over to Tatmagouche 
in the Straits of Northumberland. 

Some mines in it have been recently opened, and promise to be very productive. 

The Line No. 2 passes over this field for miles, and may be considered from that cir- 
cumstance, as not being deprived altogether of an advantage possessed by the other route. 

The great agricultural capabilities of the eastern Counties of New Brunswick have 



31 



been described in the Reports of Mr. Perley, the Government Emigration Agent, which 
were presented to the New Brunswick Legislature in February, 1847, and ordered to be 
printed. 

One most important object to be attained by the construction of a Railroad is the set- 
tlement of the public lands, and the encouragement of emigration from the Mother Country. 

As bearing very strongly upon this point in the choice of the best direction for the 
line, I subjoin the following extract taken from Bouchette's Work on Canada, vol. 1, page 
331. It is a quotation made by him from " The Commissioners' Report of 1821 '': — 

" The Bay of Gaspe, and particularly the Bay des Chaleurs, are susceptible of the 
most improved agriculture. For the establishment of emigrants no part in Canada offers 
such immediate resources of livelihood as may be derived from the fisheries. It is a fact 
worthy of notice^ that in the year 1816, when the lower parts of th© Province were afflicted 
with a famine from the destruction of the harvest by frost, no such inconvenience was 
experienced at Paspebiac, nor at any other place within the level tract above mentioned." 

The tract alluded to here is not clearly defined by the quotation, but it is supposed 
to mean the whole district along the south shore of the Bay Chaleurs. 

This tends to show the effect produced by the vicinity of the sea, in moderating the 
temperature and saving the crops from untimely frosts. In this respect, therefore, the 
Line No. 2 has an important advantage over the one through the central and more 
elevated land of New Brunswick. ^ 

As the interior is approached, and the distance from, as well as the elevation above, 
the sea increases, the danger to crops from cold nights and early frosts also increases. 

In the Madawaska Settlement, and on the Upper St. John River, great failures of 
crops have occurred from this cause, and wheat and potatoes are very liable to be destroyed. 

From the bend of Petitcodiac to the St. Lawrence, a distance of upwards of 300 miles, 
the direct line would pass through a perfect wilderness, with not a single settler on the 
whole line, except a few at or near to Boistown. 

Leaving engineering difficulties for the moment out of the question, the cost of con- 
struction would be materially increased by the extra difficulties attendant on the transport 
of necessary materials, and in supplying with food the labourers and others engaged on the 
line. 

This disadvantage is not shared by the second route, which can be approached in 
numerous places along the Gulf shore by means of bays and navigable rivers. 

The Direct Line No. 4 will not have such advantages to present to settlers as the 
second. On the contrary, if adopted, it might be found necessary to incur expenses for 
the establishment of small communities alons: the line to repair and keep it open. 

The facilities for external as well as internal communication, and other advantages 
arising from commerce and the fisheries, which will be developed by the Eastern line (and 
entirely wanting along the Direct Route), will, it is fully expected, make its vicinity 
eagerly sought for by settlers, and that it will, in the course of no very great length of 
time, lead to the extension of that long-continued village which now exists with but little 
exception from Quebec to Metis (200 miles), from the shores of the St. Lawrence to 
the Atlantic Ocean. 

An important item bearing upon the consideration of the best route is the present 
distribution of the population in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. 

In illustration of this part of the subject, and to afford a better idea of the nature of 
the country than can be given by a merely outline plan, a model map (N^o. 3) has been 
prepared, shewing the whole course of the lines, (Routes Nos. 2 and 4) from Halifax to the 
St. Lawrence, and by the latter over the Trois Pistoles River, beyond which the line is 
continued through a level, fertile and densely peopled district to Quebec. 

The red line shows the proposed Route No. 2. The Halifax and Eastern or Bay 
Chaleurs line. 

The black line shows the Direct Route, No. 4, from the bend of Petitcodiac. 

The yellow tint shows the present settlements. 

The green is the wilderness of uncleared forest, unsettled, and the far larger portion 
of it still ungranted and waiting for occupation. 

It must be premised that a branch Railway from the City of St. John is contemplated 



12 



to pass up the valley of the Kennebecasis, and connect with the main trunk at the Bay of 
Shediac. 

The survey of this line, ordered by the Provincial Government, is in progress ; and 
from the latest information received, the line promises most favorably. 

The total population of New Brunswick has been estimated to amount, at the 
beginning of 1848, to 208,012, distributed in the proportions as under : — 

County of Restigouche. 4,214 

" Gloucester 10,334 

" Northumberland 19,493 

" Kent 9,769 

43,810 

" Westmoreland and Albert....- ......... 23,581 

*' King's 19,285 

" St. John 43,942 

86,808 

« Queen's... , 10,976 

" Sunbury 5,680 

16,656 

" York 18,660 

% « Carleton 17,841 

36,501 

« Charlotte 24,237 

Total 208,012 

Of these, the first four, amounting to 43,810, are on the line of the proposed Route 
No. 2, and will be entirely thrown out by the adoption of the other. 

Campbelltou, Dalhousie, Bathurst, Chatham on the Miramichi, and llichibucto — sea- 
ports and shipping places of consequence on the Gulf shore ; all of th^m susceptible of 
the greatest development, will be left isolated and cut oflf. 

These ports are ice-bound during the winter months ; and railwa^^ communication 
will be to them of the greatest importance. 

It will affect most materially the interests of the City of St. John, and the receipts 
upon their branch Railway. 

It will affect also most sensibly the receipts of the main trunk line. 

Along the south bank of the St. Lawrence, from Quebec to M^tis, there are settled 
along it in what can be ooly compared to one continued village for 200 miles, 75,000 
inhabitants. 

Of these, also, a large population, probably 12,000 in number, residing between the 
Rimouski and M^tis River, will be deprived of the benefit of the railway, if the Direct 
Line be adopted. 

To counterbalance the serious detriment which would thus bo caused, this line would 
diminish the length of the branch line, likely to be made to connect them with Freder- 
icton, which is the seat of Government, and contains about 6,000 inhabitants. 

The population of Nova Scotia may be estimated to be about, viz. : — 

City of Halifax and County 40,000 

County of Cumberland 10,600 

" Colchester 14,900 

'' Pictou 30,300 

'' Sydney and Gu^&borough 23,200 

Remaining Counties 111,260 

Total , 230,200 

The population of Cape Breton is estimated at 49,600. 

Of the above, if the Whitehaven and Direct Route be adopted, the City of Halifax 
and County, amounting to 40,000, will be excluded from the benefit of the lice. 

If the Halifax and Eastern line (Route No. 2) be adopted, then the population of 
Sydney and l^ictou, amounting to 53,500, will be excluded. 



18 



To the population in the southern or remaining counties (111,200), the Halifax Route 
will be of essential benefit. 

From the other route they would derive no advantage whatever. 



It is now proposed to give an account of the explorations and their results. 

The dotted lines on the General Plan, No. 1, shew were these were made, and the 
courses taken. 

In the season of 1846, the Cumberland Hills were carefully examined; sections with 
the theodolite were made, and barometrical observations taken, to ascertain the lowest and 
most favorable point for crossing them. 

The line which has been cut out and explored for the military road was followed from 
the Bend of Petitcodiac to Boistown. 

From Boistown the general course was followed, and levelled as far as the Tobique 
River, but the country was so unfavorable that new courses had to be constantly sought out. 

A new line altogether was tried from the Tobique, as far as the Wagan Portage. 

The results deduced from the observations and sections proved this line to be quite 
impracticable for a Railway. 

Whilst the line was being tried, other parties explored from Newcastle on the Mira- 
michi River, over to Crystal Brook on the Nipisiguit, the valleys of the Upsalquitch and 
its tributaries, and as far as the Restigouche River. 

The country at the upper waters of the Nipisiguit, and the whole of the Upsalquitch 
valleys, were found to be rough, broken, and totally impracticable. 

The result of this season's labours went to show, that the best, if not the only, route 
that would be likely to be practicable, would be by the North-west Miramichi to Bathurst, 
and then along the Bay Chaleurs. 

During the winter, a small reconnoitring party (on snow shoes) was sent up the Meta- 
pediac Valley, as far as Metailis Brook, and they made their way across the country, from 
thence to the mouth of the Torcadi River on the Rimouski. 

Their report on this line was rather favorable, and had there been any necessity for it, 
it would have been more fully explored the next season (1847). 

As soon as this was sufficiently advanced to admit of the parties entering the woods, 
the explorations were resumed. 

A grade line was carried over the Cumberland Hills. It was cut out through the 
woods, from the foot on side to the foot of the slope on the other, a distance of ten miles, 
and carefully levelled .with a theodolite. This proved to be quite practicable. 

The exploration of the Eastern line was again taken up. 

It was commenced on the head of the tide, on the south-west Miramichi, and was 
carried up the valley of the north-west Miramichi over to and down the Upsalquitch River 
to Bathurst, and along the shores of the Bay Chaleurs to the Restigouche, up the Meta- 
pediac to the Metis, and along the bank of the St. Lawrence to the Rimouski and Trois 
Pistoles River. 

The result of this exploration was so satisfactory that the party engaged upon it re- 
turned up the same route, surveyed it, and took the levels along it back to the Miramichi 
River. 

An exploratory line was then cut through the greater portion of the flat and generally 
level country between this river and the Province line at Bay Verte, 

An examination of the country was made from the Trois Pistoles River along the St. 
Lawrence to Quebec; which, with what had been done in Nova Scotia, during this and the 
former season, completed the whole of one good and favorable line from Halifax to Quebec. 

The details are given in the accompanying Report, Appendix No. 1, General Plan 
No. 1, Model Map No 2, and Book containing exploratory sheets. No. 16, containing plans 
and sections of the whole route, and comprises the line recommended to be adopted. 

Unwilling to abandon the Direct Route through the centre of New Brunswick, by 
which, if a line could be successfully carried out, the distance would be so materially 
shortened, as is apparent by the mileage given in Route No. 4, it was determined to use 



14 



every effort to decide either the practicability or impracticability of such a line. To this 
end large parties were employed the whole season. 

One party explored, cut, and levelled a line the whole way between the Napadogan 
Lake and the Kestigouche River, a distance of ninety-six miles. 

The line explored was a very great improvement upon the one of 1846. 

It is considered to be so far satisfactory as to prove that a line for that distance can 
be found which would be within the limits of railway gradients. 

The details are given in the Assistant Surveyor's Report, Appendix No. 2, with three 
exploratory sheets, Nos. 17, 18, 19, containing plans and sections of the ground passed 
over. 

A large party was engaged in trying to find a line from Trois Pistoles River on the 
St. Lawrence, through the Highlands to the Restigouche River, for the purpose of connect- 
ing on to the New Brunswick party. The winter overtook them whilst still embarrassed 
in the Highlands at the head waters of the Green River. 

The dotted lines on the Greneral Plan No. 1, will show their attempts. 

A line was tried up the Valley of the Abersquash, but it ended in a cul-de-sac. There 
was no way out of it. 

A second line was carried from Trois Pistoles over to Lac-des-Isles, Eagle Lake ; and 
by the middle branch of the Tuladi River, the north-west branch and head waters of the 
Green River were gained. 

But this point was not reached except by a narrow valley or ravine of four miles in 
length. 

A theodolite section was made of it, and it was found to involve a grade of at least 
one in forty-nine, and to attain that, heavy cuttings at one part and embankments at 
another would be necessary. 

There is no occasion at present to enter upon the discussion of whether this should 
condemn a whole line, for having attained the Forks, at the head of the main Green River, 
no way was found out of it, and this explored line, like the first mentioned, must be con- 
sidered to have ended in a cul-de-sac also. 

Further details are given in the Report of Mr. Wilkinson, the Surveyor intrusted with 
the more immediate charge of this part of the line, in Appendix No. 3, with sketches 
attached to it. 

It is just probable that a line might be found by way of the Kedgwick River and the 
Rimouski as far as the mouth of the Torcadi River, from which to the Trois Pistoles, there 
was ascertained to be no difficulty. 

But as the advantages in every way, except distance, are so much in favor of the 
Eastern Line, it would only be incurring delay, and perhaps useless expense, in further 
explorations of this part of the country. 

In the Report (Appendix No. 3) there is a third route suggested for examination and. 
trial, viz , by one o^'the lower branches of the Green River and the Squattock Lakes. 

Whether successful or not, it is liable to the objection of approaching the frontier of 
the United States. 

There remains to be noticed the exploration for a line of railway from Whitehaven on 
the eastern coast of Nova Scotia towards Pictou and Bay Verte. 

This was rendered necessary in consequence of the suggestion made by Captain Owen, 
R.N., to make Whitehaven the Atlantic terminus of the railway. 

The details of this exploration are given in the accompanying Report, Appendix No. 
4, and Exploratory Sheets, Nos. 20, 21, 22 and 24. 

Engineering difficulties and expensive cuttings occur on this route. 

From the commencement in the Harbour of Whitehaven the line must pass along a 
a barren and rocky coast, for upwards of thirty miles, to Country Harbour, before it can turn 
off towards the interior. And it cannot do this and get clear of the sea shore without the 
necessity of making a tunnel of about a mile in length through a ridge of whinstone. 

Again, at the Falls of the St. xMary River there will be required a tunnel of about a 
quarter of a mile, and a viaduct acrobs a valley, of about 500 feet in length. 

The summit level occurs between Lake Eden and Beaver Lake, and is 400 feet above 
the sea. 



15 



At Grant's Bridge, on the East River, for nearly three miles in length, there would 
necessarily be several expensive cuttings through rocks of sandstone and limestone. 

The length of this line from Whitehaven to Bay Yerte is estimated at 181 miles. 
From Halifax to the same point is 124. Leaving a difference of fifty-seven miles. 

If the Direct Route (No. 3) could be established, it would add seventeen miles to the 
trunk line. 

But as it is not to be supposed that Halifax, the capital and great commercial city of 
the Province, would in such a case allow itself to be excluded from the benefits of the 
proposed Railway, then it would involve, in addition to this seventeen miles of trunk 
railway, a branch line of probably ninety miles. 

Or if the Eastern (Bay Chaleurs) line through New Brunswick be added on to it, as in 
Route No. 5, then it will involve no less than fii'ty-seven miles extra of trunk line, and 
the same necessity for the branch line of ninety miles mentioned. 

To compensate for such disadvantages it must be shown that Whitehaven has the 
most paramount claims to be selected as the Atlantic terminus, in preference to Halifax. 

The Harbour of Whitehaven is 120 miles nearer to England by sea than Halifax. 
Equivalent to, in ocean navigation by the steamers, ten hours. 

This, it is readily conceded, is a very great advantage, and were there no drawbacks 
or other considerations in the way, it would be quite sufficient to give that port the 
preference. 

It is a well-known fact, however, that there is a time and season in the year when the 
Cunard steamers cannot keep their direct course to Halifax even, but are compelled, by 
fields of ice, to keep to the southward, and sometimes pass to the south of Sable Island. 

During this time, which occurs in the spring of the year, and may last for two or 
three months, there would be some risk in there making direct for the more northern port 
of Whitehaven. And if for these three months the steamers were obliged to make Hali- 
fax their port, then for that time the Whitehaven line would be useless. 

In respect to the advantages which it is said to possess, of remaining open all the 
year round, it is not quite clear that it does so. 

From enquiries made on the spot in the summer of 1847, Captain Henderson learned 
that the preceding winter the harbour had been frozen over entirely, five to six inches 
thick,* and that it was sometimes blockaded up and much incommoded by ice. 

Subsequently, however, and during this winter, when the objects of the enquiries 
made there in the summer became known, and the advantage of the Railway spoken of, a 
statement accompanied with affidavits was forwarded with a view to counteract the effect 
of the information given to Captain Henderson and the parties exploring there. 

They are given in the Appendix No. 5 to this Report. 

They tend to show that though the immediate entrance to the harbour may be, and 
generally is clear, yet that large quantities of floating ice find their way through the Gut 
of Canso, and by Cape Breton, which pass off in a southerly direction, crossing the direct 
path of steamers and vessels from Europe. 

The coasting vessels keeping in shore are not so liable to be molested by it. 

The harbour is admitted to be a fine sheet of water, but it does not and cannot vie 
with Halifax, either in appearance or capacity. 

Referring to Lieutenant Shortland's Report, Appendix No. 5, who made a survey of 
it in obedience to the directions of Captain Owen, R.N., it appears that it is not free from 
the objection which is made against the Port of Halifax, and is its only drawback, viz., 
the prevalence of fogs. 

Lieutenant Shortland says, ^' that in foggy weather the harbour (Whitehaven) is dif- 
ficult to approach, especially to a stranger, as soundings in shore are very irregular, and 
I have not been able to learn any good indications of its vicinity to be gathered from the 
lead, so as to render its approach by that means certain 3 and Torbay, its immediate 
neighbor to the westward, is a dangerous place to get into. 

" From the fishermen and small coasters I understand the currents round the point are 
uncertain and generally depend upon the wind, though the prevailing current is to the 
westward. 

• Vide Appendix No. 5. 



16 



" I experienced this current in a boat when I visited the outer break ; it was then 
setting to the westward, at the rate of one mile and a half per hour at least. I also per- 
ceived vessels in the offing setting rapidly in the same direction, the breeze was from the 
eastward and light, though it had previously blown hard from the same point. 

" We also, on our passage from Halifax to Canso, during a fog, with the wind from 
south-west, experienced an easterly current, but the land once made, the harbour is easily 
attained, especially by a steamer.^' 

This can scarcely be considered a favorable report of its advantages as a harbour in- 
tended for the great Atlantic terminus. ^ 

Accommodation and safety for a, fleet of merchantmen could be expected there, as is to 
be found at Halifax. 

To make it a safe approach Lieutenant Shortland continues thus : 

'^ A judicious arrangement of fog-signals and light-houses with buoys, on the principal 
dangers, and a good survey with the sea-soundings well laid down, would make the 
approach in the night, or during fogs, attended with small danger to a careful seaman/' 

One of the undoubted results of the Railway will be to make Halifax, if it be made 
as it ought to be, the Atlantic terminus, the great emporium of trade for the British 
Provinces and for the Far West. 

Whitehaven has not the capacity for this, and in winter it is evidently dangerous 
for sailing vessels, and the selection of it as a terminus would be to exclude Halifax alto- 
gether, or to compel the formation of a branch railway of ninety miles in length, in addition 
to fifty-seven miles of trunk railway. 

It involves also the necessity of making expensive arrangements j light-houses must 
fee built, depots for the supply of the steamers must be made, fortifications must be erected, 
and accommodation for a garrison provided. For the terminus of a great line of railway 
would need protection in time of war. 

At present there are only a few fishermen's huts. 

The probable saving of ten hours of time in an ocean voyage which varies even with 
the Cunard steamers, from nine to eighteen days, is not of such all-absorbing magnitude 
as to entail by the choice of the terminus, such a fearful amount of extra expense and 
inconvenience to a whole Province. 

At a more advanced period, perhaps, when the Provinces have attained all the pros- 
perity they have a right to expect from this and other great works which would follow as 
surely as efi"ect follows cause, then it may be time to consider the propriety of making a 
branch to Whitehaven. 

Its selection now as the terminus would most materially affect the receipts to be 
expected from the traffic. 

Whitehaven, therefore, with its longor and more expensive line of railway, full of 
engineering difficulties, passing for miles through a district of country, rocky, barren, and 
unfavorable for agriculture, benefiting a comparatively small proportion of the inhabitants, 
to the exclusion of the capital and the greatest amount of the Province; — or else involving 
the necessity of making a branch line of ninety miles in length, is decidedly recommended 
to be rejected. 

And the City and Harbour of Halifax (one of the finest in the world) is recommended 
to he selected as the Atlantic terminus for the proposed line of railway. 

Tbat part of the Direct Route CNos. 3 and 4), viz., the line from the Bend of Petit- 
codiac by Boistown to the Restigouche and the St. Lawrence, crossing the range of New 
Brunswick mountains, having to surmount two summit levels of 1,216 and 920 feet, causing 
heavy grades, and increasing materially the cost of transport ; passing through a totally 
unsettled and wilderness country; involvicg greater difficulties in the transport of the 
materials necessary for its construction, and supplying food to the labourers engaged in its 
formation; excluding the towns and settlements on the Gulf shore, and so preventing the 
development of the vast resources of the country to be derived from the fisheries; and 
also inflicting a serious loss to the interests of the main line, and to the intended branch 
from the City of St. John in New Brunswick, is, notwithstanding its one great advantage 
of diminished distance, recommended most strongly to be rejected. 

And the Route No. 2, from Halifax to Truro, at the head of the Bay of Fundy, 
passing over the Cobequid Hills, and on or near to Amherst and Bay Verte, crossing from 



17 



thence over to the Rivers Richibucto and Miramichi, above the flow of the tide, so as not 
to interfere with their navigation; then by the valhy of the North-west Miramichi and 
Nipisiguit River to Bathurst; then along the shore of the Bay Chaleurs to the Restigoucbe 
River; then by the valley of the Metapediao over to or near to the River St. Lawrence; 
then by the route as shown in the General Plan No. 1, along the banks of the St. Lawrence 
to Riviere du Loup, and from thence continued through either the second or third cou- 
cessions along the river until it approaches Point Levi, is recommended as the best direc- 
tion for the Proposed Trunk Line of Railway from an Eastern Port in Nova Scotia, through 
New Brunswick, to Quebec. 

Ifc combines in the greatest degree the following important points : — 

1st. The immediate prospect of direct, as well as the greatest amount of remuneration 
for the expenditure to be incurred ; the opening up a large field for provincial improve- 
ments, for the settlement of emigrants, and by affording the opportunity in addition to 
internal, of external communication, by means of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Bay of 
Chaleurs, it will tend to develop in the highest degree the commerce and the fisheries of 
the Province of New Brunswick. 

2nd. Passing along the sea coast for a great distance, and capable of beiug approached 
at several points by bays or navigable rivers, it possesses the greatest facilities for construc- 
tion, tending to reduce the expense, and by its irore favorable grades, also the cost of 
working and subsequent maintenance. 

3rd. By passing over a less elevated country, and at the least distance from the sea, 
there will be less interruption to be apprehended from climate, whilst the more favorable 
grades will increase the efficiency and rapidity of intercourse. 

4th. Passing at the greatest possible distance from the United States, it possesses in 
the highest degree the advantage to be derived from that circumstance of security from 
attack in case of hostilities. 

The best general direction for the Proposed Trunk Line of Railway being admitted to 
be that of Route No. 2, viz., the Halifax and Eastern, or Bay Chaleurs Route, some additional 
remarks may be made upon its peculiar advantages, as well as upon the few eDgiueering 
difficulties which occur, and in explanation of the plans and sections forwarded. 

The details of the line are given in the Appendix No. 1. The plans referred to are 
the General Plan No. 1, the Model Map No. 2 (which should be stretched out on the floor 
to be properly viewed), and the book containing fifteen exploratory sheets of plans and 
sections which relate exclusively to this line. 

The City of Halifax is situated on the western side of the harbour, whilst the best 
site for the terminus is on the opposite shore at Dartmouth. 

The distance to Quebec from the latter will be four miles shorter than from the 
former; and one great advantage is, that its vshort line is as yet comparatively free from 
wharves and commercial establishments, and an extensive terminus can ijy formed there 
at less expense and inconvenience than on the Halifax side, where the Goveinment dock- 
yard and private establishments would interfere materially in the selection of a good site 
for it. 

At Dartmouth it is expected that vessels entering the harbour will be able to unload 
at the railway premises, or probably into the railway cars, whilst an equally good terminus 
is to be had at Point Levi, opposite to Quebec. The same railway cars, loaded from the 
ships in harbour at Halifax, will thus, after running an uninterrupted course for 635 miles, 
be delivered of their contents into the boats if not into the holds of vessels in the River 
St. Lawrence. The same can of course be done from the River St. Lawrence to the vessels 
waiting in Halifax Harbour. 

Such an uninterrupted length of railway, with such facilities at its termini, will be, 
it is believed, unequalled in the world. 

In the transmission of goods and merchandise this will be a most favorable point in 
competing with rival lines. The American railways, especially along the Athmtic States, 
are constantly interrupted, and passengers have to transfer themselves not only from cars 
to steamboats, but sometimes from one set of carriages to another set, in waiting for them 
on opposite banks of a river. 



18 



In Nova Scotia the passage over the Cobequid Hills cannot be effected without heavy 
grades of one in seventy-nine and one in eighty-five ; but as these occur, the one ascending, 
and the other immediately descending, and only for ten miles, the inconvenience can be 
easily got over by affording an assistant engine for the goods' trains at that part. No 
engineering difficulties are expected to occur from this up to Kestigouche River. 

It is necessary, however, to make some remark in reference to the sections shown in the 
Book of Exploratory sheets 6 and 7, comprising that part of New Brunswick lying between 
Shediac and the North-west Miramichi: 

The whole of this portion of the country is believed to be generally low and flat^ with 
occasional undulations. The section run through it in the previous season of 1846, 
towards Boistown, confirmed this impression. 

Its exploration and examination, therefore, was left to the last, and it was not until 
the really formidable-looking obstacles had been explored and successfully got over, that 
the attention of the parties was turned to it. 

As at this time the season was rapidly closing, the exploring parties were directed to 
cut straight lines through it, as the best means of obtaining the general altitudes and a 
knowledge of the country. No attempt was made to contour the hills. The sections, 
therefore, in these two sheets are not grades for the railway, but of the ground passed over 
by the straight lines. With the exception of the immediate banks of the St. Lawrence, 
this is expected to prove one of the easiest portions of the line. 

When the line reaches the mouth of Eel River, it cannot proceed direct on to Dal- 
housie, but must turn off up the valley of that river. 

Two courses are afterwards open to it, one to turn off through a valley, by which it 
can soon gain the Restigouche, the other to proceed on to the head waters of Eel River, 
and then turn down to that river. Which is the best of these two routes can be better 
determined when the detailed surveys of the route are made. 

The most formidable point of the line is next to be mentioned, — this is the passage 
up the Metapediac valley. 

The hills on both sides are high and steep, and come down, either on the one side or 
on the other, pretty close to the river's bank, and involves the necessity (in order to avoid 
curves of very small radius) of changing frequently from one side to the other. The lock, 
too, is slaty and hard. From this cause, twenty miles of this valley will prove expensive, 
but the grades will be very easy. 

About fourteen bridges of an average length of 120 to 150 yards will be required up 
this valley. There is also a bridge of 2,000 feet long, mentioned in the detailed Report as 
necessary to cross the Miramichi River. 

But bridging in this country is not the same formidable affair that it is in England. 

The rivers are nearly always shallow, and the materials, wood and stone, are close at 
hand. 

The bridges in the United States, on the best lines, are built of wood on the truss- 
work principle, with stone piers and abutments. 

On the Boston and Albany lines, and on many others in the New England States, the 
bridge generally used and approved of is known as '^ Howe's Patent Truss Bridge." 

The cost of this kind of bridge, as furnished by the parties who have purchased the 
patent, is as follows : — 

For Spans of 60 feet, single track, $11 per foot e X2 5 10 Stg. 

'^ 100 " 18 '' 3 15 '' 

'' 140 ^' 21 " 4 7 6" 

" 180 " 27 " 5 12 6 " 

'' 200 '• 30 " 6 5 0" 

The cost for double track would be about 55 per cent, additional. 

The price includes the whole of the superstructure ready for the rails, but not the 
piers and abutments. 

The bridge over the Connecticut River at Springfield, is built on this principle j it 
has seven spans of 180 feet each, and the sill of the bridge is 30 feet above low water. 
On other lines the same kind of bridge is used, but no iron work is permitted (the unequal 



19 



expansion and contraction of this metal is objected to), and the addition of an arch is 
introduced. 

A bridge built on this principle on the Reading Railroad, 1,800 feet long, cost 
S40,00D, equivalent to £8,330 sterling. 

Soon after passing the valley of the Metapediac, the great obstacle of the St. Lawrence 
chain of mountains is got over, and the line may range away towards Quebec, having, 
however, occasionally a river or ravine to cross, whose passage requires consideration. 

At the Trois Pistoles, the stream in the course of ages has worn out a very awkward 
and deep ravine. The bank on one side is generally steep and abrupt, whilst that on the 
opposite is low and sloping away back for a long distance, before it again reaches the 
height of the table land. 

The most favorable site for crossing it occurs at about eleven miles from the St. 

Lawrence, where the two banks become nearer to each other, and are more equal in height. 

At this point the breadth of the stream is 100 feet at bottom. The width between 

the banks at top 500, and the depth is nearly 150 feet. The banks are rocky. Though 

formidable it is by no means impracticable. 

On the New York and Erie Railway there is a bridge whose roadway is 170 feet 
above the bottom of the ravine, which it crosses by one span of 275 feet. Its cost was 
£5,200. 

From Riviere du Loup to Quebec, the Railway might but for the snow bo carried 
almost at a surface level. 

Through the whole of New Brunswick, for 234 miles, and through Lower Canada as 
far as Riviere du Loup, 167 miles, there will be found along the line abundance of timber 
and stone (including limestone) of the best quality for building purposes. There will be 
found also, in New Brunswick more especially, abundance of gravel for the superstructure. 
In Nova Scotia, the Railway will have to pass with but little exception through land 
which has been sold or granted away to individuals. The exception will be the other way 
in New Brunswick. It will be seen on reference to the Model Map, that it approaches 
the settlements between Bay Verte and Shediac, and skirts along the JBay Chaleurs. 

In Canada, from the mouth of the Metapediac to the Trois Pistoles, it runs through 
still ungranted land. But for the last 110 miles between Riviere du Loup and Quebec, it 
runs through a densely settled country. 

Until the detailed surveys are made, and the precise location of the line marked on 
the ground, it will be impossible to state precisely the exact number of miles it will pass 
through Crown land. 

If the following estimate be taken, it will not be much out — 

In Nova Scotia , 15 miles. 

New Brunswick. , 200 '' 

Canada , 160 ^' 

Total 375 " 

The following synopsis will show approximately the quantities of ungranted land in 
the Counties through which the line passes : — 

In Nova Scotia. 

Halifax County 780,000 

Colchester 120,000 

Cumberland 180,000 

1,080,000 

In New Brunswick. 

Westmoreland County 301,000 

Kent 640,000 

Northumberland , , 1,993,000 

Gloucester 704,000 

Restigouche 1,109,000 

4,747,000 



20 



In Canada. 

Bonaventure 2,000,000 

Eimouski 5,000,000 

Karaouraska 500,000 

L'IsIet 600,000 

Bellechasse 500,000 

8,600,000 

General total 14,427,000 

The land for the Railway will have to be purchased ia Nova Scotia for nearly its 
whole course, and in Canada for the 110 miles mentioned. 

The latter, however, it is expected, will cost very little more than the expense which 
it would be necessary to incur in cleaning, gettiog out the stumps, and preparing the wild 
lands for the Railroad. 

No part of the line will ever be at any great distance from Crown lands ; but it will 
be a question of detail for this part as well as for the Nova Scotia section, whether it will 
be more advantageous to cut and convey from them the timber and materials required, or 
purchase them. 

The direction of the proposed line being determined upon, the next points which 
present the;i.selvcs for consideration are, the character of the road and method of construc- 
tion. 

In the first instance it is considered that one line of rails will be sufficient, but in 
taking ground for the Railway and stations, and wherever the line passes, regard should 
be paid always to the prospect of its being made at some future time a double track. And 
in the anticipation of a heavy traffic, which there is a fair prospect of scon passing along 
it, and with a view to ultimate economy, as well as the saving of much inconvenience, it 
is recommended that the road (being intended for the great trunk line) should be con- 
structed at once in a substantial and permanent manner, with a good heavy rail, capable 
of bearing high rates of speed for passenger trains. 

On all the principal lines of railway in the United States, the flat iron bar is every- 
where being discarded, and the H or T rail, generally of 561b. to the yard, is being sub- 
stituted for it. 

On several of the lines also a double track is being made, and the works constructed 
are of a more permanent character than formerly. 

Much has been said in praise of the cheap method of making railways in America, 
and the advantages to be derived from it in a new country. 

As an example of this system and its practical results, the Utica and Syracuse Rail- 
way may be here quoted. 

This road is fifty-three miles in length and forms part of the Great Western Line, 
connecting Albany on the Hudson River, with Buffalo on Lake Erie — one of the principal 
lines in the country. 

In its construction more than a usual amount of timber was used. For a considerable 
portion of its length (upwards of nineteen miles) it passed through a deep swamp. Piles 
were driven into this, to support a long continued trestle-bridge, over which the railway 
track was carried upon longitudinal bearers. 

For the other thirty-three miles the grading was made in the usual manner by 
excavations and embankments : but the superstructure was of wood. 

Upon the grading in the direction of its length, a small trench was excavated, and a 
sill of wood was firmly bedded in it. Where the sills abutted end to end, they were sup- 
ported by a piece of wood, of the same section, laid beneath them. At right angles to 
and upon the upper surf^ices of the sill were spiked cross-ties, and again, at right angles to 
the cross-ties, and immediately over the sills, were laid the longitudinal wood-bearers, to 
•which the iron plates were firmly spiked. The centre of the rail and sill were in the same 
vertical plane. 

Thus everything was done for economy : as much wood as possible being used. This 
railway for its construction and equipment cost on an average only £3,600 per mile. 

It was thought worthy, in 1843, to publish an account of it in London ; and it forms 



21 



the chief subject of a volume, thus entitled, "Examples of Railway Making, which, 
although not of English practice, are submitted to the Civil Engineer and the British 
and Irish Public/' 

The following Report is extracted from the Annual Statement of the Secretary of 
State to the Assembly of the State of New York, dated 4th March, 1847 :— 

" Syracuse and Utica Railroad has been opened for the transportation of passengers 
for the last eight years. 

" The company having determined to relay the road with an iron rail of the most 
improved form, have contracted for a considerable portion of the iron necessary, and are 
proceeding with the intention of laying a substantial structure adequate to the proper 
performance of the business required. 

" Present wood structure has cost the company - - 8417,075 55 
" The iron now laid thereon is the flat bar, and will be useless^ 
and therefore will be sold. It is hoped that there may be 
derived from the sale of it 80,000 00 



" Leaving a sum of - - - - $337,075 55 

which has been expended for the cost of the wood structure, which, in addition to a large 
annual amount for repairs, will be practically worn out, sunk and gone, when the new 
structure is laid and used. The new structure, it is supposed, will cost about the same as 
the former, toward which, it is hoped, the old iron will pay, as above, 80,000 dollars, 
leaving the sum of about 300,000 dollars to bo raised by the company on its credit. 

" This will, when paid, reimburse the capital of the company for the equivalent 
amount, which has been appropriated to the worn-out structure. Id addition to the cost 
of the new structure, there will be required a considerable sum for new engines, cars, &c. 
The demand upon the company for the transportation of property at the close of the canal 
has entirely exceeded its capacity to do this business. Property destined for sale in the 
eastern markets, in large quantities, was stopped at most points upon the line of railroad 
contiguous to the canal. Reing practically confined to the winter months in this branch 
of business, it cannot be expected that the company could provide a supply of cars for this 
sudden and extraordinary demand, when they must stand idle and go to waste during two- 
thirds of the year. 

" When the road shall be relaid with the proposed iron rail, the public will require 
that the trains shall be run with increased speed. In relation to this subject it is deemed 
proper to refer to the following suggestions contained in the report of this company, made 
last year: — 

"^Very great embarrassment is experienced from the fact, that cattle are allowed to 
run at large, and to impede and so often delay the trains as at present. It is a serious 
matter, and unless more care shall be bestowed by the owners in restraining them, either 
at their own suggestions or in pursuance of some proper law to be passed, it will be found 
very diflicult to make good time upon this line. A part of our business must be always 
done in the night, and it is then we experience the great hazard. The trains are frequently 
thrown off by them, and the danger to the persons in charge and to the passengers is 
imminent. The owners always insist upon pay for their animals destroyed, without reflect- 
ing upon the great damage that they cause to the property of the company, and the more 
fearful injury that might ensue to passengers. If the owners will not take care of them, 
it is impossible to keep them off. In Massachusetts much less difficulty in this respect is 
experienced; for there, it is believed, a penalty is incurred by the owner of domestic 
iiuimals that go upon the railroad. Our business is conducted with all possible care in this 
respect, and the enginemen suitably feel the risk of life or limb (which to them is almost 
as important) that they incur from the growing evil. 

" 'A very proper law in this State has guarded the public and the company against 
direct wanton injury to the trains by individuals. It is submitted that negligence in 
allowing animals to run upon the railroads should be prevented by some suitable restraints.' " 

Some of the inconveniences arising from a cheap railway may be learned from this 
Report. 



22 



At this time the total amount spent upon its construction appears, from the same 
report, to have been 1,098,940 dollars, equivalent to £4,520 sterling per mile. 

The new superstructure, it was supposed, would cost about the same as the former, 
viz., 417,075 dollars, or about £1,640 sterling additional, which will make the price of this 
railway, when completed as intended, £5,960 per mile. 

In other parts of the States where these trestle bridge or skeleton railways have been 
made, instances have been known of the locomotive slipping down between the rails, which 
have warped outwards. 

With a view, therefore, to ultimate economy and to save inconvenience and interrup- 
tion to the traffic when once established, it is most strongly recommended that the line, 
whenever commenced, shall be at once properly and efficiently made. 

In determining the form of the road it is necessary to bear in view that it will pass 
through a country everywhere liable to be obstructed by heavy falls of snow. It does 
not appear, however, from the results of enquiries made in the United States, that any- 
thing beyond inconvenience, and some additional expense in the cost of working the line, 
is to be apprehended from this cause. 

The Railway from Boston to Albany, which crosses the range of mountains between 
the Connecticut and Hudson Rivers, attaining upon them an elevation of upwards of 1,400 
feet above the sea, to which it ascends by a grade of about eighty feet per mile for thirteen 
miles, traverses a country subjected to the same sort of winter as the British North Amer- 
ican Provinces. 

The average depth of snow in the woods is from three to four feet, which is not much 
less than it is in the woods of New Brunswick and Canada. 

In 1843, a year remarkable for the great number of snow storms which occurred, 
there were sixty-three falls of snow, but the traffic was not interrupted to any very serious 
extent, not more than two or three trips. 

To keep the roads clear, two descriptions of snow ploughs are used, one for the 
double track, and another for the single.* In the former, the share of the plough travels 
immediately over the inner rail, throwing the snow outwards from the track. It is first 
used on one track, and then runs back upon the other. 

In the single line the ploughshare travels in the centre of the track, throwing the 
snow off at once upon both sides. 

For the double track, the snow plough weighs from five to six tons, and costs about 
£125. For the single track it is somewhat lighter. 

The plough requires generally, when run without a train, two engines of 20 tons 
each, or with a train, three engines. 

When the fall of snow does not exceed a few inches, the small plough always fixed in 
front of the engine, consisting of an open frame-work projecting about five feet in front, 
and called a ^' Coio scraper," is found, when cased over, to be sufficient to clear the line. 
When the fall is deeper, the plough is used immediately after the snow has ceased to 
fall. 

It can be propelled by three 20 ton engines through three feet of newly fallen snow 
at the rate of six miles an hour. 

If the fall does not exceed two feet, it can travel at the rate of fifteen miles an hour. 

The drifts through which it is propelled are sometimes fifteen feet deep, and from 
200 to 300 feet long, and at others eight or ten feet deep, and from a quarter to half a mile 
in length. 

The line of railway is marked in divisions of about eight miles, to each of which 
eight or ten men are allotted, who pass along the line each day with small hand-ploughs, 
picks, &c., clearing away the show and ice which the trains collect and harden between 
the rails and the roadway. 

It is found that the freezing of the snow or rain upon the rails does not impede the 
heavy engines, as the weight of the forward wheels is sufficient to break it, and enable 
the driving wheels to bite. 

Whenever, from local causes, the snow is found to drift on the line of railway, snow- 

* Vide Plans Nos. 30 and 31. 



23 



fences are erected, which are very effectual. They are simple board fences from ten to 
fifteen feet high, placed from ten to twenty feet back from the roadway. 

In wet weather the rails become very slippery, but the difl&culty is overcome and the 
wheels enabled to bite upon the steep gradients by the use of sand boxes, which are fixed 
in front of the engine and immediately over the rails. These can be opened at pleasure 
by the engine-driver, and the sand is used wherever necessary, 

The means thus successfully adopted to overcome the obstacles arising from ice and 
snow are employed much in the same way upon all the railways which are exposed to them. 

In the year 1847 the expense incurred under this head (removing ice and snow) 
upon the Western llailroad in Massachusetts, was, according to the ofl&cial return, $2,763, 
equivalent to £575 sterling. 

Upon many of the other lines expenses under the same head are returned, but very 
much smaller in amount. 

In places where the rails are not raised above the general level of the country, 
much greater difficulty is experienced in keeping the lines clear of snow than in parts 
where there are embankments. 

From the foregoing it does not appear, therefore, that snow need be considered an 
insurmountable obstacle to the formation of a line of railway from Halifax to Quebec. 

To obviate, as much as possible, the liability to interruption from this cause, it is 
recommended that in the construction of the line, it be adopted as a principle, that the 
top of the iron rail be kept as high as the average depth of snow in the country through 
which the line passes. 

In Nova Scotia this will require probably an embankment of two feet high, gradually 
increasing as it proceeds northward to the St. Lawrence and along the flat open country 
on its banks, to five or even six feet. 

The whole of that part of British North America through which this line is intended 
to be run, being as yet free from railways, the choice of gauge is clear and open. 

Without entering into and quoting the arguments which have been adduced in favor 
of the broad or narrow gauge of England, as it is more a question of detail than othewise, 
it will be deemed sufficient for the present Keport to recommend an intermediate gauge. 
Probably five feet six inches will be the most suitable, as combining the greatest amount 
of practical utility with the least amount of increased expenditure. 

With the object of proceeding on to the consideration of expense of construction, the 
proposed trunk line will be supposed to have a single track with one-tenth additional for 
side lines and turn outs, to have a rail 65 lbs. to the yard, supported upon longitudinal 
sleepers with cross-ties, similar to the rail used upon the London and Croydon line, the 
wood to be prepared according to Payne's process, to have a gauge of five feet six inches, 
and, as a principle, the top of the rails to be kept above the level of the surface of the 
ground, at a height equal to the average depth of the snow. For the best information as 
to the cost of making such a railway, reference must be made to the works of a similar 
character in the United States. 

At about the close of the year 1847, there were in that country nearly 5,800 miles of 
railway completed or in progress. The average cost for those having a single track, has 
been estimated at $22,000, equivalent to £4,166 sterling, per mile. For the double track 
Ii532,000, or £6,666 sterling per mile. 

But the extreme differences which are to be observed in the cost of construction in 
the various States are so great, ranging from £1,600 up to £24,000 per mile, that no 
criterion can be established from averages obtained from such discordant data. 

The State of Massachusetts affords the best materials for accurate information. 

All the railroad corporations are by law obliged to make annual returns to the Legis- 
lature, and very valuable statistical information is thereby obtained upon railway affairs. 

From the Official Reports for the year 1847, the following table has been compiled : — 



24 



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This table comprises, witli the exception of about fifty miles, upon which there occur 
some doubts as to what the account precisely embraces, the whole of the Railroads at 
present completed in the State of Massachusetts. The table shows 683^ miles of railway, 
includinji: branches, which have cost in their construction and equipment, $31,675,946, or 
£6,599,155 sterling. 

There are 146 miles of double track. They have been taken at so much additional 
single track. A double track would not cost exactly twice that of a single one in its con- 
struction ; but as these lines were made originally only with single tracks, and have been 
added to from time to time as circumstances would admit, it must have tended to increase 
the cost, and in calculating the average expense per mile, it is considered the result will 
not be much in error. The cost per mile, it appears then, has been £7,950 sterling. 

There is no other State in the Union which presents equally good data for making 
an approximate estinsate. 

The climate and n^iture of the country bears also strong resemblance to that through 
which the Halifax and Quebec line will pass, and in this respect the analogy of the two 
cases is extremely favorable. 

The New York and Erie Railroad, 450 miles in length, now in course of construction, 
will, it is supposed from the latest information, cost £6,250 per mile, exclusive of equip- 
ment. 

The estimate for the Hudson River from New York to Albany, now in progress, is 
for the single track, £7,440 sterling per mile. 

The estimate for the Montreal and Portland line is about £5,080 sterling per mile. 
For the Great Western Railroad in progress in Upper Canada, the estimate for that 
section of the line which would most resemble the Halifax and Quebec Road, is £5,688 
per mile. 

On referring to the table, it will be seen that all the lines have either the H or T rail, 
generally 561bs to the yard. 

The price of railroad iron in the States is very much greater than in England, or 
what it can be procured for in the British Provinces. It pays a very high duty on impor- 
tation into the States. 

On some of the lines upwards of £15 per ton for rails has been paid. In England 
rails can now be bought for £8 or £9 per ton. 

The advantage which the Halifax and Quebec line will possess over the lines in the 
table in respect of iron alone, may be estimated at £500 per mile. 

When these lines were constructed also, the demand for labour was extremely great, 
and wages much higher than in the present day. 

The average (of £7,950) derived from the table, may therefore very fairly be reduced 
by several hundred pounds. 

The Halifax and Quebec line will have also many advantages which the American 
lines had not. 

The land for the greater portion of the road will not have to be purchased. Timber 
and stone will be had nearly along the whole line for the labour of cutting and quarrying. 
Judging then from the analogy afi"orded by a similar, or nearly similar, lines in the 
neighbouring States, giving due weight to the considerations which have a tendency to 
modify the cost in the parti'?ular case of the Halifax and Quebec line, and forming the 
best estimate to be derived from the data obtained upon the exploratory survey, which 
under the circumstances of a perfectly new country, only recently explored, and still 
covered with a dense forest, is all that can in the first instance be done; it is considered 
that if the sum of £7,000 sterling per mile be assumed as the probable cost of the proposed 
line, it will not be fiir from the correct amount. 

The total distance from Halifax to Quebec will be about 635 miles. 

635 miles, £7,000 per mile, will be c£4,445,000 

Add one-tenth for contingencips 444,500 



£4,889,500 
Or, in round numbers, five millions. 

4 



26 



It is estimated, therefore, that the cost for construction and equipment of the Proposed 
Trunk LinC; from Halifax, through New Brunswick, to Quebec, will amount to £5,000,000 



The question which presents itself next for consideration is a very important one, 
namely, the probable returns for such an expenditure. 

The information to be afforded on this head can only to be derived in a very general 
way, from a consideration of the present population and resources of the three Provinces. 

The direct communication between the two termini, Halifax and Quebec, is of a very 
limited nature. 

By land, it is confined almost to the conveyance of the mails. Passengers proceed 
generally by the way of the United States. 

By sea, in 184.7, the communication was by seventeen vessels, which arrived at 
Quebec, having a tonnage of 1,257, and eighteen departed from that port for Halifax, 
whose tonnage amounted to 1,386 tons. 

This amount of intercourse does not at the first view appear encouraging to expect 
receipts, but when it is made to appear that this limited intercourse arises entirely from 
the want of good means of inter-communication, such as would be afforded by the proposed 
railway, it becomes a strong argument in favor of making the line, rather than against it. 

The communication of the Provinces with each other is cramped and restricted 
beyond measure by the same want. 

By sea the amount of intercourse may be judged of by the return given in Appendix 
No. 6, furnished by the Quebec Board of Trade. 

The chief elements which enter into, and upon which depends, the success of every 
railway enterprise, are population, agriculture and commerce. 

At the extremities of the line, and for some miles along the St. Lawrence, there is 
an abundant population. External commerce, there is in an eminent degree. In that of 
agriculture its deficiency is great at present, but as there are millions of acres of good, 
productive land only waiting for the hands necessary to cultivate them, and the means 
of access to which will be afforded by the railway, this very circumstance may be made 
to conduce to the advantage of the line, and pay a large portion of the expense of its con- 
struction. 

The population of Halifax (the Atlantic terminus) is estimated at 25,000 souls. It 
is the capital of the Province, the seat of Government, and its commerce extensive. The 
value of its imports and exports is estimated at £2,500,000. 

The City of Quebec, the other terminus, according to the census of 1844, contained 
(including the county, which is not given separately) 45,000 persons. 

But this city derives additional importance from its being the one great shipping port 
and outlet for all Canada. By its port passes the whole trade of that Province. It may 
be regarded as the focus of commerce for a million and a half of souls. The value of the 
imports and exports together may be estimated at £5,500,000 sterling, giving employment 
to a very great amount of shipping. 

This immense trade is of necessity crowded into six months, the navigation of the St. 
Lawrence being closed for the remainder of the year. 

In addition to these two great termini there are lying on each side of the line two 
most important tributaries, viz., the City of St. John and Prince Edward's Island. The 
former with a population in city and county together, of nearly 44,000 persons, with a 
commerce of the value of £1,800,000 in exports and imports, giving employment also to 
a great amount of shipping. The latter with a population of 50,000 engaged principally 
in agriculture and the fisheries. The exports and imports of this island are about £200,000 
annually. 

Between the City of Quebec and the Biver Mentis there are, settled along the south 
bank of the St. Lawrence, 75,000 inhabitants, all engaged in agriculture. These people 
are French Canadians, and almost every family has a small farm and homestead. 

A striking peculiarity of these farms are their elongated shape, the length being gen- 
erally thirty times that cf the breadth, oftentimes a greater disproportion exists. The 
houses and farm-buildings are always built at on© extremity, that which adjoins the road 



27 



dividing one set of concessions from another. There are generally three or four lines of 
houses and roads running thus along the St. Lawrence. 

The effect produced by this manner of parcelling out the land and building has been 
to form what can only be compared to one long and continued village for 200 miles. 

For the first 100 miles out of Quebec, as far nearly as the Ilivi(^re du Loup, the pro- 
posed line of railway will run through the centre of this extended village, and with a train 
of moderate length, the last carriage will scarcely have cleared the door of one house before 
the engine will be opposite another. For the second 100 miles it will leave these conces- 
sions and farms a little on one side, but still within reach. A more favorable disposition 
of a population (comprised of small farmers) for contributing to the luay traffic of a railroad 
could scarcely have been devised. 

In the country lying between the Restigouche River and Halifax, the inhabitants 
who will be near to the railroad will amount to about 100,000; making the population, 
cither upon or near to the line, including the two termini, 250,009 persons. But if the 
total population be taken within the area, which will be benefited hy and become contrib- 
utors to the line, then it may be estimated at not less than 400,000 souls. 

In a Report of the Directors, made upon the New York and Erie Railroad in 1843, 
when the question of proceeding with that line was under consideration, one of the data 
upon which its future receipts was calculated was derived from population and relative 
distance. And using the data obtained from the working of one portion which had 
been completed and was in operation, it was calculated that 531,000 persons on a line of 
425 miles in length, would return in net earnings to the railway $1,343,500, or $2.50 
nearly per head, equivalent to ten shillings sterling. As the railroad is not yet completed, 
the true result cannot yet be seen. 

The net earnings of the railroads in Massachusetts for the year 1847 were $2,290,000. 
The population of that State, over whose area railways are everywhere extended, and the 
whole of which may therefore be considered as tributary to them, being at the time about 
800,000. This gives $2.75 per head, equivalent to eleven shillings, or the same result 
nearly. 

Applying the same ratio (of ten shillings per head) to the 400,000 inhabitants who 
are within the area, and likely to become tributaries to the Quebec and Halifax Railway, 
it would give £200,000 as its probable revenue. 

The great staple of trade of New Brunswick is its timber. For this all absorbing 
pursuit the inhabitants neglect agriculture, and instead of raising their own supplies they 
import provisions in large quantities from Canada and the United States. In the year 
1846, New Brunswick paid to the latter for provisions alone £216,000 sterling, whilst, in 
return, the United States only took from them £11,000 in coals and fish. 

Of Nova Scotia the great staples are timber and the products of the fisheries. The 
inhabitants import provisions also largely. 

Canada is an exporting country, and capable of supplying the demands of both. 

In the winter of 1847-8 the price of flour at Halifax and St. John was at forty shil- 
lings the barrel, and it was being imported from the chief ports in the United States, even 
from as far as New Orleans in the Gulf of Mexico. At the same time, at Quebec the 
price of flour was only twenty-five shillings per barrel. A very great diff'erence, which, 
had the railroad been in existence, would not have occurred. 

Another great source of revenue likely to be developed by the railway is that of coals, 
to be derived from the great Cumberland Field. 

Quebec and the upper country would no doubt take large quantities for their own 
consumption. Halifax the same for itself, and also for exportation to the United States. 

Considerable returns would arise from the fisheries and from the products of the 
forest, lying contiguous to the line, which would find their way by it to the shipping ports. 

The country through which the road will pass possesses, therefore, in itself j elements 
which, when fully developed, cannot fail to realize large receipts. 

But there are, exclusive of these, other and highly important sources for productive 
revenue. 

Halifax may be considered to be the nearest great sea-port to Europe. 

Passengers travelling between England and the Canadas would adopt this railway, as 
the shortest; and best line ^hioh they oould take. Emigrants would do the same. 



28 



The mails, troops, munitions of war, commissariat supplies and all public stores, would 
naturally pass by it, as the safest, speediest and cheapest means of conveyance. 

If a straight line be drawn from Cape Clear in Ireland, to New York, it will cut 
through or pass close to Halifax. 

The latter is therefore on the direct route; and as the sea voyage across the Atlantic 
to New York may be shortened by three days nearly, in steamers, it is not improbable that 
on that account, when the branch railroad to St. John is completed, and other line to con- 
nect on with those in the United States, the whole or the greatest portion of the passenger 
traffic between the Old and the New World would pass through Halifax, and over a great 
section of the proposed railroad. 

But the great object for the railway to attain, and which, if it should be able to 
accomplish, its capability to pay the interest of the capital expended would be undoubted, 
is to supersede the long and dangerous passage to Quebec by the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

To make two voyages in a season vessels are obliged to leave England earlier, and 
encounter the dangers ot the ice in the Grulf, much sooner than it is sate or prudent for 
them to do. 

The loss of life and property which has occurred from this cause, and returning late 
in the autumn, has been enormous. It cannot be ascertained, but probably it would have 
more than paid for the railway. 

An opinion, may, however, be formed of it from the rates of insurance, which in the 
sprins: and autumn are as high as ten per cent. A much higher rate than to any other 
part of the world. 

The navigation of the St. Lawrence is closed for about six months of every year. 
During the whole of this period all the produce of the country is locked up, and necessarily 
lies unproductive on the hands of the holders. 

The surplus agricultural produce of the year cannot be got ready to be shipped in the 
season it is produced. In the winter of 1846-7 it has been stated on good authority, that 
50C,000 barrels of flour were detained in Montreal at the time when famine was raging in 
Ireland. As soon as the season opened, there was such a demand for shipping to carry 
provisions, that the ordinary course of the timber trade was deranged by it. 

All this would have been prevented had the railway been then in existence. 

For six months in the year, then, the St. Lawrence would cease to be a competitor 
with the railway, and large quantities ot produce would be certain to be forwarded by it. 

For the other six months of the year it would have also the lollowing strong claims to 
preference : — rapidity of* transport; the saving of heavy insurance; cheaper rate of freight 
from Halifax ; vessels engaged in the Canadian trade could make tJircc voyages to Halifax 
for two to Quebec. 

The trade which is now crowded into six months, to the great inconvenience of every 
one concerned, rendering large stocks necessary to be kept on hand, would be diflFused 
equally over the whole year. 

It is most probable that these advantages will be found so great, that only the bulky 
and weighty articles of commerce, such as the very heavy timber and £t few other goods, 
will continue to be sent round by the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

If such should prove to be the case, then the proposed railway would have as much or 
perhaps more traffic than a single track could accommodate. 

The cost of transportation, it is calculated, will not be too high on this lioe to admit 
of the above results being realized, and in that case, more especially if the capital can be 
raised at a moderate rate of interest, it is considered highly probable that it will, even in a 
commercial point of view, be a piofitable undertaking. 

From evidence given to the Gauge Commissioners in England, it appears that the cost 
of transport for goods on the undermentioned lines of railway was as follows: — 

Great Western 06 of a penny per ton per mile. 

Grand Junction 13 *' 

Birmingham and Gloucester 09 " " 

South Western 10 

London and Birmingham.. f 12 " " 



•»• 



5).50 

,JQ Average per ton per fljilp. 



29 



This is supposed to be gross weight, including carriages, &c. 

One-fifth of a penny per mile per ton will be a liberal allowance for the net weight. 

From a very carefully prepared document,* extracted from a Report of the Commis- 
sioners appointed in 184G by the Legislature of the State of New York, to locate certain 
portions of the New York and Erie Railroad, it appears that the cost of motive power on 
some of the principal railroads in the United States was 40 cents per train per mile, 
equivalent to Is. Sd. sterling. 

With the expected grades on the Halifax and Quebec line, it is calculated that an 
engine of good power, having the assistance of an extra engine for 25 miles of the distance, 
will convey 100 tons of goods at a moderate speed of eight to ten miles an hour over the 
whole line. 

The total cost per train would then be — £ s. d. 

635 miles, at Is. 8c?. per mile 52 18 4 

25 miles, at Is. 8(i. for extra engine , 2 18 



Total for 100 tons £55 

Or lis. per ton for the whole distance. Equal to .207 drs. per ton per mile, the same 
nearly as the average on the English railways. 

At this rate, the actual cost of carrying a barrel of flour from Quebec to Halifax will 
be only Is. \d.', and if it be doubled to pay interest on capital, then 2s. 2d. might be 
the price charged for its conveyance. 

The freight of flour from Quebec to England may be taken at 5s. per barrel; from 
Halifax at 3s. 

The diff"erence in freight would therefore pay its transit by railway, and the difi"erence 
in the rates of insurance would be to the profit of the owner ; and the voyage being shorter, 
there would be less risk of its arrival in the market in a heated or deteriorated condition. 

Provisions and all other articles whose value is great in proportion to their bulk, 
would be as advantageously forwarded by this route. 

It is %lly expected, therefore, that the railway will be able to compete successfully 
with the shipping in the St. Lawrence even during the summer season. 

But there is still another great and important source from which traffic may be 
expected, viz. : — From those vast and extensive regions in the Far West, round the Lakes 
Huron, Michigan, and Lake Superior. 

By the completion of the canals along the River St. Lawrence, the produce of these 
lake countries now finds its way to the markets of Montreal and Quebec. 

Large cargoes, consisting of 3,000 barrels of flour, can now pass from their ports down 
to Quebec without once breaking bulk. 

Already produce which found its way to New York by the circuitous route of the 
Mississippi and New Orleans, has been diverted to the channel of the St. Lawrence. 

The extent to which this will take place it is not possible yet to calculate ; but there 
is no doubt that large quantities of produce which formerly found its way to the Atlantic 
ports of New York and Boston, will be diverted to the St. Lawrence. 

Of the enormous exports of provisions from the United States, the following will 
give some idea ; — 

In 1846. In 1847. 

Flour —barrels 2,289,476 4,382,496 

Wheat— bushels 1,613,795 4,399,951 

Corn —bushels 1,826,068 16,326,050 

Meal —barrels 293,720 918,006 

The great portion, if not nearly all this immense produce, of which the above forms 
ou\y 2l few items in ih.Q great account, was received at the Atlantic Ports from the Far 
West. And it is for this most important and still increasing trade, that Montreal and 
Quebec will now, by means of the St Lawrence Canals, have the most favorable chance 
of a successful competition with new York and Boston. 

♦Yide Appendix No. 1. 



30 



It has been calculated that the cost of transport for a barrel of flour from the lakes 
to New York was 5s. Id. sterling; to Boston 6s., exclusive of charges for transshipment. 

By the Quebec and Halifax line, it is estimated, now that the Canals are open, a 
barrel of flour may be delivered at Quebec for 2s. sterling, and carried to Halifax for 2s. 
2d. ; total, 4s. 2d. 

By the Montreal and Portland, Is. Sd. has been estimated as the price per the railway, 
to which if 2s. more be added as freight to Montreal, the price by that line will probably 
be only 3s. Sd. sterling per barrel. The Montreal and Portland will have, therefore, an 
apparent advantage over the Quebec and Halifax line, arising from its much shorter 
distance. But there are some drawbacks attending it, which may cause the preference to 
be given to the latter notwithstanding the line passes through the United States. 

A transit duty of 2 J per cent, ad valorem, has to be levied upon all foreign produce, 
and introduces the inconvenience of custom-houses and custom-house officers. 

Portland is a foreign port, and is 400 miles by sea farther from England than Halifax. 

It has been seen in a former part of this Keport, when speaking of the Utica and 
Syracuse Railroad, how inadequate that line was to take all the traffic which was required 
to be forwarded by it at the time the Brie Canal is closed. 

The growing population and produce of the Western States are so gigantic, that it is 
probable there will be more than sufficient to employ fully both the Montreal and Portland, 
and Quebec and Halifax Railroads. 



From the foregoing remarks, it will appear then, that although no very good or 
precise estimate of the returns for the expenditure of five millions sterling can be given, 
yet that there are very good general grounds upon which to form an opinion, that ulti- 
mately, if not at once, the line will, in a commercial point of view, be a very productive 
one. 

The Montreal and Portland, which will be the great competitor with that of the 
Qaebcc and Halifax line, is an enterprise of a purely commercial and local nature. As 
such, it is not likely shareholders will be contented, unless they receive what they have 
every right to expect — a high rate of interest for the expenditure they have incurred, and 
the risk they have encountered in the undertaking. 

But with the Quebec and Halifax it is very different. The enterprise is of general 
interest. It concerns the prosperity and welfare of each of the three Provinces, and the 
honor as well as the interests of the whole British Empire may be affected by it. It is 
the one great means by which alone the power of the Mother Country can be brought to 
bear on this side of the Atlantic, and restore the balance of power now fast turning to the 
side of the United States. 

Every new line of railway made in that country adds to their power, enabling them 
to concentrate their forces almost wherever they please, and by the lines, of which there 
are already some, and there will soon be more, reaching to their northern frontier, thty 
can choose at their own time any one point of attack on the long-extended Canadian frontier, 
and direct their whole strength against it. 

The Provinces, therefore, and the Empire, having such interest in the formation of 
the Halifax and Quebec line, it should be undertaken by them in common as a great 
public work for the public weal. 

If so undertaken, the Provinces, supported by the credit of the Mother Country, 
could raise capital at a rate of interest which could not be done by any Company of Share- 
holders. And if to this advantage be added the disposal for the exclusive benefit of the 
railway, of a portion of the wild lands along the line, and in the immediate country which 
it would be the means of opening to settlement and cultivation, then it is highly probable 
that it would be constructed for three millions sterling. 

In a former part of this Report it has been estimated that there are in the counties 
through which this line will pass, fourteen millions of acres of land yet ungranted, and 
therefore remaining at the disposal of the Provincial Grovernment. 

The ordinary price of an acre of wild or uncleared land is about 2s. 6d. to 3s. per acre. 
But where public roads are made through them, the value immediately increases, ;nui it wi 1 
not be considered an extravagant estimate, to suppose that the land alonjjj i^ <i»" in ♦ii«? 
imiiiediate Ticinity of the railway, will be worth £1 per acre^ 



31 



For the construction of the great St. Lawrence Canal, by which Canada has now the 
prospect of reaping such immense advantages from the trade of the western country, the 
Imperial Government guaranteed the interest on a loan of two millions sterling and up- 
wards at four per cent. This loan was easily raised, and a large premium per cent, was 
received in addition for it. 

There can be little doubt that another loan of three millions sterling, at the same rate 
of four per cent, interest, could be raised upon the credit of the Provincial revenues if 
guaranteed by the Mother Country. With this amount of capital, and two millions of 
acres to be reserved, and sold from time to time, it is conceived the railway may be made. 

Upon the strength of these two millions of acres, and the loan as a basis, a large 
amount of notes might be issued in payment of the wages and salaries of the labourers and 
other persons employed on the works of the railway. They should be made receivable for 
taxes and customs duties. The amount authorized to be issued might be limited to the 
extent of the acres, and as these were sold, an equal amount of the notes should be can- 
celled. 

The issue of a number of notes which would pass current over the three Provinces, 
would be conferring a great benefit upon the community at large. The currency is not 
the same throughout, and persons who travel from one Province to another are now put to 
inconvenience, and have often to pay a discount upon exchanging the notes of one colonial 
bank for those of another. Advantage might be taken of the measure to assimilate the 
currency of the colonies to each other, and make it "sterling," the same as in England. 

By a little arrangement, also, these notes might be made payable at the chief ports of 
emigration in the United Kingdom ; and in that case a very great convenience would be 
afforded to a large class of persons on both sides of the x\.tlantic. 

To remit small sums now, requires the intervention of bankers or agents. This has 
the effect upon persons resident in the settlements (and no doubt, also, often in towns), of 
preventing their sending the assistance which they otherwise would do to friends at home. 
Many a small note would be put up and sent in a letter, which is now never thought of for 
want of the convenience. 

In remitting sums from Halifax to England, the banks do not like to give bills at 
less than sixty days' sight. These notes would, therefore, become a great public benefit, 
and there would be no fear of their being kept in circulation almost to any amount. 

Upon the loan of three millions, the interst at four per cent, would amount to £120,000 
per annum. 

Of this sum it may be fairly assumed that for the conveyance of the mails between 
Halifax and Quebec, the Post Office Department would be willing to pay annually an equal 
amount to what is now paid for the same service. This has not been officially obtained, 
but there are good grounds for supposing that it is nearly £20,000. 

In the case, then, that beyond this the railway only paid its own working expenses, 
the sum of £100,000 would have to be made good out of the revenues of the Provinces. 

The proportion of this, or of whatever sum might be deficient to pay the interest on 
the loan, would have to be arranged ; and it may, for the sake of illustration, be supposed 
to be as follows : — 

Nova Scotia £20,000 Proportion .2 

New Brunswick 20,000 ^^ .2 

Canada 30,000 " .3 

The Imperial Government 30,000 " .3 



Total £100,000 .10 

For the proportion guaranteed by tlie Provinces, they would receive the benefits con- 
ferred by the railway in developing their resources, increasing the value of all property, 
promoting the sale and settlement of their wild lands, increased population, and increased 
revenue. 

For the proportion guaranteed by the Imperial Government, all Government officers, 
civil or military, troops, munitions of war, supplies, &c., for tlie public service, and emi- 
grants, should be transported over the line at the cost price. 



82 



New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, it is understood, are most willing to guarantee the 
interest to the extent of their means, and in a fair proportion. 

Canada having done so much already for the communications above Montreal, it is 
fully expected will not be backward in perfecting those below Quebec. 

In the extreme case supposed above, viz., of the railway yieldiog no returns beyond 
working expenses, it is not conceived that either one of the Provinces or the Empire 
would not receive an equivalent in some other form for its direct contribution to make 
good the interest. 

An account is at present being taken of the existing way traffic between Halifax and 
Amherst, by the Commissioner appointed by Nova Scotia to collect statistics for the rail- 
way. The same is being done for that portion of the line along the banks of the St. 
Lawrence. ^ 

There is some reason to believe that these two portions of the line will be found to 
have sufficient traffic to pay, over and above working expenses, the moderate interest on 
capital of four per cent. 

If such should prove to be correct, then the foregoing statement would be modified 
and stand thus : — 

Miles. 

Total distance, Halifax to Quebec , ,... 635 

Quebec to River du Loup 110 

Halifax to Amherst and Bay Verte 125 

235 



Leaving unproductive still 400 

K the total line can be done for £3,000,000, then the proportion for the 400 miles 
would be £1,889,600 or £2,000,000 nearly. 

The interest for which would amount to £80,000. 

Deducling £20,000 for the conveyance of the mails, then the sum to be responsible 
for would be £60,000, which divided proportionally as before, would give for 

Nova Scotia £12,000 proportion .2 

New Brunswick 12,000 '^ .2 

Canada , 18,000 '< .3 

Great Britain 18,000 .... ^' .3 



Total £60,000 .10 

Therefore, for the responsibility (perhaps for assvming it onlij') of £100,000, or as the 
case may prove, £60,000, the Quebec and Halifax Railway may be made. 

But to lo:k at this great work only as a commercial speculation, and as yielding mere 
interest for the expenditure incurred, would be to take a very limited view of the objects 
it is capable of achieving. 

Iq the United States they are well aware of the increased value which internal im- 
provements and communications give to property of every kind. 

In those countries works have been undertaken for that object alone, not for the mere 
return which the work, whether railway, road or canal, would make of itself. 

The indebtedness of the several States has been incurred almost entirely in making 
great internal improvements. And in the boldness and unhesitating way in which they 
have incurred debts and responsibilities for the purpose of developing their resources, may 
be seen the secret of their unrivalled prosperity. 

The State is in debt, but its citizens have been enriched beyond all proportion. 

Most unfavorable comparisons are made by travellers who visit the British Provinces 
and the United States. And some have gone so far as to state, that travelling along where 
the boundary is a mere conventional line, they could at once tell whether they were in the 
States or not. 

On the one side the State Governments become shareholders to a large amount in 
great public works, lead the way and do not hesitate to incur debt, for making what has 
been termed " war upon the wilderness ',' employment is given, and by the time the im- 
provement iw completed property has been created and the employed become proprietors. 



S3 



On tte other side the Provincial Governments do not take the initiative in the same 
manner, and hence in the settlements and in the provinces generally, may be seen this 
marked diflference in the progress of people who are identically the same in every respect. 

Until the British Provinces boldly imitate the policy of the States in this regard, and 
make ^' war upon their wilderness," their progress will continue to present the same un- 
favorable contrast. 

The creative or productive power of canals, railways, &c., may be traced in the history 
and progress of the State of Now York. 

The Erie Canal was commenced in 1817, and completed in 1825, at a cost of $7,143,789, 
£1,400,000 sterling. In 1817 the value of real and personal property in the City 
of New York, was from official documents estimated at ^£16,436,000 sterling. In 1825, it 
was estimated at £21,075,000 sterling. In 1829, the population of the State was 1,372,000, 
and in 1830 the population of the State was 1,918,000. 

The canal was found so inadequate to the traffic, that between the years 1825 and 
1835, a farther sum of £2,700,000 was expended in enlarging it. 

Making the total cost to that date, £4,100,000 sterling. 

It has been seen that in the City of New York — 

In 1817, the official value of real and personal property was... £16,436,000 
In 1835, " ^' " '•' ... 45,56V,000 

Being an increase of 2| times in eighteen years. 
For the State of New York — 

In 1817, the official value of real and personal property was . . £ 63,368,000 
In 1835, '' '< '^ ^' .. 110,120,000 

Or an increase of nearly £47,000,000 sterling in the value of property, attributed 
chiefly, if not entirely, to the formation of the canals. 

In 1836, the amount conveyed to tide water by the canal was 697,357 tons. 

And on the first of July of that year there had accumulated in the hands of the Com- 
missioners an amount sufficient to extinguish the whole of the outstanding debt incurred 
in its construction. 

The net receipts from all the State canals, after deducting the expenses of collection 
and superintendence, for the year 1847, was je449,270. Villages, towns, and cities have 
sprung up along its course. 

The population of the State, which was — 

In 1810 ,.. 959,949 

Was in 1845 2,604,495 

In 1846 the value of real and personal property was estimated at £128,500^000. 

It will be seen from the above, therefore, that in addition to the wealth created for 
individuals, the canals produce a large annual revenue to the State. 

The following extracts from the financial affiiirs and statistics of some of the States 
may be quoted in illustration of this part of the subject : — 

1847. 

3Iassac7iusetts, 

Total indebtedness of the State 1st January, 1847 $ 999,654 

Credit of the State, lent to Railroads 5,049,555 

Total liabilities of the State $6,049,209 

As security for the redemption of the scrip lent to Railroads, the Commonwealth holds 
a mortgage on all the roads, and also 3,000 shares in the Norwich and Worcester, and 
1,000 in the Andover and Haverhill. 

fennsj/lvania. 

Public property, canals and railroads, at original cost $28,657,432 

Mari/land. 

Receipts from Baltimore and Ohio Railroad $42,402 

Ditto from Canal Company f,. - 11,550 

5 



34 



North Carolina. 
Debt of the State, on account of Railroad Companies $1,110,000 

Oldo. 

Debt contracted for the sole purpose of the construction of 

Public Works within the State $19,246,000 

Canals, 820 miles in length, cost 15,122,503 

Net receipts in 1846, after paying repairs and expenses 408,916 

In 1810 the population of this State was 45,865 

In 1820 " ^' 581,434 

In 1840 " « 1,519,467 

or tripled nearly in twenty years, during the progress of her canals. 

Michigan. 

Debt on 30th November, 1845 $4,394,510 

Total length of Kailroads finished, and helonging to the State, 222 mills. 

This State was authorized to raise a loan of $5,000,000 for internal improvements. 

For the same purpose. Congress granted to this State 500,000 acres of land. 

In 1840, the population was 212,267 

In 1845, " 304,278 

or an increase of fifty per cent, nearly in^ye years. 

Indiana. 

1st January, 1847, the public debt was $14,394,940 

By the terms of the Act adjusting this debt, it is to be equally divided between the 
State and the Wabash and Erie Canal. Of this canal, which is to be 458 miles long, 
374 miles are in Indiana; 174 of this portion are finished, and in operation. There 
remain 200 miles to be completed, upon which part about $1,200,000 have been expended 
by the State. It is estimated to cost the further sum of $2,000,000 to complete the entire 
canal. To cover this amount, the State is to transfer to trustees 963,126 acres of land 
adjoining to or in the neighbourhood of the canal. 

The population of this State in 1811 was 24,520 

*' " '' 1830 '' 343,031 

" « " 1840 " 685,086 

or doubled in ten years. 

Illinois. 

1847.—-Total internal improvement debt $8,165,081 

Total canal debt 6,009,187 

$14,174,268 

The population in 1830 was 157,455 

« "1840 " 476,183 

or tripled in ten years. 

The sales of the public lands during one year (1845) in the 

United States amounted to Acres, 1,843,527 

Producing.... $2,470,298 

or an average of 5s. Id. sterling per acre. 

But to shew the effect produced by a canal or railway passing through property, the 
following extract may be quoted from the Report of a Board of Directors of the New 
York and Erie Railroad Company in February, 1844 ; — 

" The Board find that they have omitted one description of property which has 
heretofore been considered of great value, but the right to most of which has been lost to 
the Company by failure to compete the road within a certain period ; the most valuable 



35 



of which consisted of 50,000 acres of wild lands in Cattaraquas County, near Lake Erie, 
and one-fourth part of the Village of Dunkirk. 

^^ An offer in writing was made in 1837, by responsible parties, to take these donations, 
and pay further the sum of $400,000, provided certain portions of the railroad were com- 
pleted within a specified time/' 

That is about $8, or 33s. Ad. sterling per acre. 

In Michigan 461,000 acres were granted by Congress for the endowment of a Uni- 
versity. These lands were selected in sections from the most valuable of the State. The 
minimum price of these was at one time $20, or £4 Gs. Sd. sterling per acre, but became 
lower afterwards; 17,142 acres, the quantity sold up to 30th November, 1845, brought 
£2 9s. per acre. 

Sixty-nine thousand acres, devoted to schools, were sold for £1 7s. per acre. 

Such, then, are some of the results of making '' war upon the wilderness.'' 

In New Brunswick there are, according to an Official Keport of the Surveyor Gen- 
eral, dated 15th December, 1847, 20,000,000 acres, of which about 6,000,000 are either 
granted or sold, and 3.000,000 may be considered as barren or under water ; leaving, 
therefore, at the disposal of the Government, 11,000,000 ©f acres of forest land fit for 
settlement. 

Of the 6,000,000 granted or sold, only 600,000 acres are estimated at being actually 
under cultivation. 

By a statistical table published by W. Spackman, London, there are- 
Acres Acres Acres Total 
Cultivated. Uncultivated. Unprofitable. Acrea. 

In' England 25,632,000 3,454,000 3,256,400 ....... 32,342,000 

Wales 3,117,000 530,000 1,105,000 4,752,000 

Scotland 5,265,000 5,950,000 8,523,930 19,738,000 

Ireland 12,125,280 4,900,000 2,416,664 19,441,944 

New Brunswick 600,000 16,400,000 3,000,000 20,000,000 

Population of England 14,995,508 

" Wales 911,321 

" Scotland 2,628,957 

(C 



vc 



Ireland 8,205,382 

New Brunswick 208,000 



In Ireland there appears to be from the above table, 17,000,000 acres of ground fit 
for cultivation, and it has a population of 8,000,000 to support. 

In New Brunswick there is an equal amount of ground to cultivate, and it has only a 
population of 208,000 persons. 

If the land yet uncleared and fit for cultivation be added which remains in the 
northern section of Nova Scotia, and again between the boundary of New Brunswick and 
the Biver St. Lawrence to the east of Quebec, then there would be a quantity of nearly 
equal to that of England itself, supporting a population of 400,000 souls. 

It is not too much then to say that between the Bay of Fundy and the St. Lawrence, 
in the country to be traversed by the proposed Railway, there is abundant room for all 
the surplus population of the Mother Country. 

Of the climate, soil, and capabilities of New Brunswick, it is impossible to speak too 
highly. 

There is not a country in the world so beautifully wooded and watered. 

An inspection of the map will show that there is scarcely a section of it without its 
streams, from the running brook up to the navigable river. Two-thirds of its boundary 
are washed by the sea ; the remainder is embraced by the large rivers — the St. John and 
Restigouche. 

For beauty and richness of scenery this latter river and its branches are not surpassed 
by anything in Great Britain. 

Its lakes are numerous, and most beautiful ; its surface is undulating, hill and dale, 
varying up to mountain and valley. It is everywhere, except a few peaks of the highest 
^ouptains, poyered with a dense forest of the finest; growth, 



36 



The country can everywhere be penetrated by its streams. 

In some parts of the interior, for a portage of three or four miles, a canoe can float 
away either to the Bay Chaleurs and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, or down to St. Johns, in 
the Bay of Fundy. 

Its agricultural capabilities, its climate, &c., are described in Bouchette's works, in 
Martinis British Colonies, and other authors. The country is, by them, and most de- 
servedly so, highly praised. 

There may be mantioned, however, two drawbacks to it, and only two. 

The winter is long and severe; and in summer there is the plague of flies. 

The latter yield and disappear as the forest is cleared ; how far the former may be . 
modified by it experience only can show. 

For any great plan of emigration or colonization, there is not another British Colony 
which presents such a favorable field for the trial as New Brunswick. 

To 17,000,000 of productive acres there are only 208,000 inhabitants. 

Of these 11,000,000 are still public property. 

On the surface is an abundant stock of the finest timber, which in the markets of 
England realize large sums annually, and afl"ord an unlimited supply of fuel to the settlers. 

If these should ever become exhausted, there are the coal-fields underneath. 

The rivers, lakes and sea-coasts abound with fish. 

Along the Bay Chaleurs, it is so abundant that the land smells of it ; it is used as 
manure, and while the olfactory senses of the traveller are off"ended by it on the land, he 
sees out at a sea immense shoals darkening the surface of the water. 

For about the same expense five emigrants could be landed in New Brunswick for 
one in the Antipodes. Being within a fortnight by steam from London, any great plan of 
colonization could be directed and controlled by the Home Government. 

In case of distress or failure, it would be long previously foreseen ; the remedy or 
assistance could be applied ; or, if beyond these, there would be the upper country and the 
Far West always open, and ready to receive the colonists. 

The present limited population being so generally engaged in the pursuit of the tim- 
ber trade and in the fisheries, there is the richest opening for agriculturists. 

New Brunswick annually pays to the United States upwards of £200,000 for provi- 
sions and other articles which she can raise upon her own soil. 

Nova Scotia does very nearly the same thing. 

Whilst within a few miles* reach of their own capitals, there is abundance of land for 
agricultural productions ; these two l*rovinces are dependent for large supplies of food 
upon the United States. 

Flour is imported from as far as New Orleans. 

Wheat grown in the valley of the Mississippi is shipped at St'. Louis, and imported 
into New Brunswick ; it is ground into flour at the mills of St. John, and furnishes a 
large share of the bread eaten by the labourers of that city. 

There exists, therefore, a good market already on the spot for agricultural produce ; 
and it would be a strange anomaly, indeed, if a country situated within three or four weeks' 
sail of the markets of England, could not compete with the growers of produce in the 
valley of the Mississippi and the counties round the great lakes in the Far West. 

One thing, however, is greatly to be deprecated, that is any sudden or large emigration 
without previous preparation. 

Before wheat or food of any kind can be grown the forest has to be removed, and that 
is a work of time and hard labour, during which those engaged in it must be fed from other 
sources. 

With some little previous detailed surveying, the proposed railway can be commenced 
both at the Quebec and Halifax ends as soon as decided upon, and carried on for miles. 
During, which time the further detailed survey necessary for the remainder of the line, and 
particularly the portion through the wilderness, might be made, and the line actually 
marked and cut throughout. 

This line, when cut, would form a basis for laying out extensive blocks of land, and 
dividing them into allotments for settlers. 

It will be unnecessary in this Report to recapitulate all the good effects produced 
ii|)oa every country in which railways have been established ; but some may bo mentioned, 



3T 



They have become necessary to the age, and that country which has them not must 
fall behind in the onward march of improvement and in the development of its resources. 
And the longer it is suffered to do so, the greater and more unfavorable will be the 
contrast which it will present to the world. 

Already in this respect the British Provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are 
far behind their enterprising neighbors. 

One of the immediate effects of making this railway would be to place them in a 
position of equality. They are now dependent upon them for food. 

At the closing of the navigation of the St. Lawrence, if the United States were merely 
to prohibit the exports of provisions from their own harbours, the consequences would be 
serious to these two Provinces. Canada could not then supply them. 

In May, 1847, when the exploratory parties were being formed at Fredericton and 
provisions were being forwarded to the woods for their use, there was a scarcity of flour at 
St. John. It was said that sufficient for only two or three days' consumption remained in 
that city. The prices rose considerably, and the scarcity was only averted by the arrival 
of some cargoes from the United States, intended for Eastport. 

The railway, had it been established, would have prevented such a state of things, and 
may save it for the future. 

For the want of such a communication, Nova Scotia now finds it easier and more 
advantageous, notwithstanding a heavy duty of 20 per cent, against her, to export her 
great staple of fish to the States than to Canada; wbereas, if the railway were made, it 
would pass on to the latter, where there would be an extensive market for it, and flour 
would be received in return. 

Halifax would become the grand emporium of trade for the British provinces. 

With the assistance of the electric telegraph, an order from Quebec could be received 
in a few minutes, and the articles wanted could be sent off by the next train. 

As the vessels now arrive in fleets in the spring, and again in the autumn, it is a 
matter of forethought and consideration to the merchant of Canada, to know what he shall 
provide himself with. 

To the intending emigrant it will afford him the choice of any month in the year to 
set out for his new country, and if by means of friends previously settled, his place of abode 
has been chosen, he can time his arrival so as to have the shortest possible time to wait until 
his own crops are ready to supply him with food. 

Arriving now, as thousands annually do, in the spritig when the seed-time is at hand 
and the land uncleared, they lose the valuable opportunity of that year's crop, and have 
to wait over, existing, perhaps, upon their little capital for nearly eighteen months, until 
the succeeding harvest comes to them. To all such emigrants nearly a year may be saved. 

Surprise has sometimes been expressed that out of so many who yearly land in the 
Provinces, so many pass on and become settlers in the States. 

To the poor man his labour is his capital, and he must transfer himself to the place 
where employment is to be found. 

The proposed railway would be such a work as would engage thousands in its imme- 
diate construction. While the stimulus and new spirit it would infuse into the whole 
community, now cribbed and confined as it were to their own locations, would give rise to 
branches and other works which would employ additional thousands. 

It has been seen that the population of some of the Western States have doubled and 
even tripled themselves in the course of ten years. 

The population of New Brunswick is now only 208,000. Her revenue in 1847 was 
£106,000 sterling, or 10s. per head. 

There is no apparent reason why, if the same facilities of employment and land for 
settlement were afforded, that her progress should not be also very great. 

Every emigrant, induced to settle and remain in the country, may be calculated as 
producing 10s. annual revenue to the Province. 

If the formation of the railway increased the population of New Brunswick by 40,000 
persons only, then her proportion of the guaranteed interest would be covered from that 
cause alone. 

The same might occur also to Nova Scotia and Lower Canada. 

Jt may be asked what i.si to become of the labourers employed upon the railway during 



38 



the winter. This is the season when lumbering or cutting of timber commences. They 
might engage in it also. But with the wages earned in the summer they should be incited 
to purchase small lots of ground of about fifty acres each. 

The labours of the season over, or suspended upon the railway, they could most advan- 
tageously employ themselves in clearing, logging and improving their own lots. This 
they could do to such an extent that in the spring the women and older children could 
burn the logs off and put in some sort of crops for food, such as potatoes, Indian corn, &c. 

Mechanics might either do the same, if railway work could not be found for them, or 
find employment in the towns. 

Another great effect of the railway would be to enhance almost immediately the value 
of all real and personal property. The effects produced by the Erie Canal in doubling and 
nearly tripliug that of the City of New York have been stated. 

Villages and towns would, no doubt, spring up in its course the same as on the Canal. 
The railway would give them birth. Agriculture and external commerce would support 
and enrich them. 

But if, by its means, the navigation of the Grulf of St. Lawrence is spared, what an 
amount of human suffering and loss of life will it not save. 

The losses from shipwreck has been great, but not equal to that arising from pro- 
tracted voyages and crowded emigrant ships. 

In 1847, 89,738 persons emigrated to the British Provinces, of whom 5,293 persons 
perished at sea, and 10,000 are said to have died after their arrival. 

This was a most unusual year, and it is to be hoped by every friend of humanity, 
that anything like it will never occur again. 

No human means could have saved all this loss of life, but there is no doubt, a less 
protracted voyage and a more favorable time than the spring of the year in the St. Law- 
rence would have prevented some of the fatal results. 

The railway established, the passage may be shortened, and the time of emigration 
may be selected at choice. 

Troops are annually moved to and from Canada. About the close of the navigation 
in 1843, a transport,- having the 1st Eoyal Regiment on board, was wrecked in the mouth 
of the St. Lawrence. The men got safely on shore, but there were no roads or means of 
getting away from the place. By the personal exertions of one of the officers, who made 
his way through the woods on snow shoes to the nearest settlements and thence to Quebec, 
information was given of the wreck, and a steamer sent down to take them off. But for 
this, the consequences must have been that the Regiment would have had to winter there 
in the best manner they could. 

Embarking and disembarking at Halifax, all danger and inconvenience from tha 
Gulf navigation would be avoided. Time and expense would be saved, and the season 
might be disregarded. 

The mails to and from Canada could pass over British territory exdusivehj^ and they 
would be received at Quebec before the steamer reached Boston, and at Montreal about 
the same time as it arrived at that port. 

In a political and military point of view, the proposed railway must be regarded as 
becoming a work of necessity. 

The increasing population and wealth of the United States, and the diffusion of rail- 
ways over their territory, especially in the direction of the Canadian frontier, render it 
absolutely necessary to counterbalance, by some corresponding means, their otherwise pre- 
ponderating power. 

Their railway communications will enable them to select their own time and their own 
points of attack, and will impose upon the British the necessity of being prepared at all 
2)omts to meet them. 

It is most essential, therefore, that the Mother Country should be able to keep up 
her communications with the Canadas at ail times and seasons. However powerful 
England may be at sea, no navy could save Canada from a land force. 

Its conquest and annexation are freely spoken of in the United States, even on the 
floors of Congress. 

}y^alcriess myites agaression^ aiid ^ the railway would be a lover of poiyer by yf\\\^\\ 



39 



Great Britain could bring her strength to bear in the contest, it is not improbable that 
its construction would be the means of preventing a war at some no distant period. 
The expenses of one year's war would pay for a railway two or three times over. 



The following extract from the Report of Lord Durham, Her Majesty's High Com- 
missioner and Governor General of British North America in 1839, is so apposite and just, 
and bears so strongly upon the subject under consideration, that it is conceived no better 
conclusion can be made to this Report than to insert it : — 

" These interests are, indeed, of great magnitude ; and on the course which Her 
Majesty and Your Parliament may adopt with respect to the North American Colonies, 
will depend the future destinies not only of the million and a half of Your Majesty's sub- 
jects who at present inhabit these Provinces, but of that vast population which those 
ample and fertile territories are fit and destined hereafter to support. No portion of the 
American Continent possesses greater natural resources for the maintenance of large and 
flourishing communities. An almost boundless range of the richest soil still remains 
unsettled, and may be rendered available for the purposes of agriculture. The wealth of 
inexhausiable forests of the best timber in America, and of extensive regions of the most 
valuable minerals, have as yet been scarcely touched. Along the whole line of sea-coast, 
around each island, and in every river, are to be found the greatest and richest fisheries 
in the world. The best fuel and the most abundant water-power are available for the 
coarser manufactures, for which an easy and certain market will be founds Trade with 
other Continents is favored by the possession of a large number of safe and spacious 
harbours ; long, deep, and numerous rivers, and vast inland seas, supply the means of easy 
intercourse, and the structure of the country generally affords the utmost facility for every 
species of communication by land. Unbounded materials of agricultural, commercial, and 
manufacturing industry are there. It depends upon the present decision of the Imperial 
Legislature to determine for whose benefit they are to be rendered available. The country 
which has founded and maintained these Colonies at a vast expense of blood and treasure, 
may justly expect its compensation in turning their unappropriated resources to the 
account of its own redundant population ; they are the rightful patrimony of the English 
people, — the ample appanage which God and nature have set aside in the New World, for 
those whose lot has assigned them but insufficient portions in the Old." 

And if, for great political objects, it ever become necessary or advisable to unite all 
the British Provinces under one Legislative Government, then there will be formed on 
this side of the Atlantic one powerful British State, which, supported by the Imperial 
power of the Mother Country, may bid defiance to all the United States of America. 

The means to the end, the first great step to its accomplishment, is the construction 
of the Halifax and Quebec Railway. 

(Signed,) WM. ROBINSON, 

Captaiiiy Royal Enginecrsj Brevet Major, 

Major-General Sir John F. BuRaoYNE, K.C.B., 

Inspector General of Fortifications, 
&c., &c.; &c. 

August 31, 1848. 



40 



LIST OF INCLOSUBES TO MAJOR ROBINSON'S REPORT OF 

AUGUST 3], 1848. 



Report on the Proposed Trunk Line of Railway from an Eastern Port in Nova Scotia, 
througli New Brunswick, to QuebeC; with seven Appendices. 

Bound Book containing sixteen Exploratory Plans. 

Printed Map of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and a portion of Lower Canada, 
showing the explored route, for the proposed Trunk Line of Railway from Halifax to 
Quebec. 

Model Map. 

General Section. 

The foregoing relate to the line of railway recommended. 

Plans Nos. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, SO, and 31, of a Line of 
Railway Reported upon. 



41 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX NO. 1. 

Plans referred to r—General Plan No. 1, Book of Plans 16, Detailed Plans, Nos. 25, 26, 27, 28, 29. 



Revort on and Description of the Proposed Trunk Line of Railway from Halifax^ through 

New Brunswick^ to Quebec. 

The exploratory surveys which have been carried on during the years 1846-47, for 
the purpose of ascertaining the practicability of establishing a Una of railway from the 
Atlantic shores of Nova Scotia, through the Province of New Brunswick, to the City of 
Quebec, on the River St. Lawrence, having resulted successfully, I have the honor to fur- 
nish you with a Report upon the line which has been found practicable, and which has 
fallen under my more immediate observation and direction. 

The port of Halifax, in Nova Scotia, being selected as the Atlantic terminus of the 
railway, the chief difficulties to be surmounted between that port and the St. Lawrence 
have been ascertained, to be the range of highland in Nova Scotia, known as the Cobequid 
Hills, averaging from 800 to 1,000 feet in height; and two ranges of highlands, one of 
which, crossing the Province of New Brunswick from the River St, John, below the Grand 
Falls, in a north-easterly direction, rises to a considerable elevation at the head waters of 
the Rivers Tobique, Miramichi and Nepisiguit, and thence descends gradually to the 
shores of the Bay Chaleurs. 

The other range, lying between the Rivers Restigouche and St. Lawrence, and nearly 
parallel to their general course, is very broken and lofty, some of the mountain ranges 
attaining an elevation of 3,000 feet above the sea. 

Another obstacle of a general nature exists, and which increased the difficulty of 
ascertaining a practicable line through New Brunswick, inasmuch as the course of the line 
of railway is at right angles to the general course of the numerous rivers which intersect 
that Province. 

The proposed line passes the first of these obstacles, the Cobequid Hills in Nova 
Scotia, about sixty-five miles from Halifax, by the valley of the Folly River, in the Town- 
ship of Londonderry, attaining its summit level 600 feet above high water at Halifax, at 
the lake from which that river flows, being the lowest point on the hills to which there is 
a favorable approach which has been ascertained. 

The line avoids the broken and lofty chain of highlands in New Brunswick by follow- 
ing the level shores of the Bay Chaleurs, and it ascends the range of highlands north of 
the Restigouche by the valley of the Metapediac River and the lakes at its head waters, by 
easy grades, attaining its summit level 760 feet above high water at a point about six miles 
north of the Great Metapediac Lake, from which it then descends along the valleys of 
difi"erent tributaries of the St. Lawrence to the M^tis River, which it crosses about ten 
miles above its mouth, and is then clear of the highlands. 

The distance from Halifax to Quebec, by the proposed line of Railway, will be about 
635 miles. 

Of these 124 miles are in the Province of Nova Scotia, 
234 miles in New Brunswick, and 
277 miles in Canada. 



42 



Commencing at Halifax, the comparative advantages of having the terminus in the 
city which is situated on the western shore of the harbour, or in the Village of Dartmouth, 
which is on the eastern side, and immediately opposite the city, becomes a matter of detail 
for future consideration. 

From Dartmouth, the line passes through the broken chain of land which runs 
parallel with the south-east coasts of Nova Scotia, by the valley formed by the chain of 
lakes which extend from Dartmouth to the great Shubenacadie Lake, a distance of about 
twenty nciles. 

The highlands come in pretty close to the lakes on both sides, leaving here and there 
narrow flats along their borders. The rock is chiefly slate, and along the bottom of the 
valley are large quantities of loose fragments of rock from the adjacent hills, boulders, 
gravel, &c. 

The gradients on this portion of the line, which has been calculated chiefly from the 
sections made for the Shubenacadie Canal, which was intended to follow this chain of 
lakes, will be favorable, though, from the rocky and broken character of the ground, it 
will be probably expensive. 

For the first nine miles the line follows the western shores of the lakes. The hills 
are a short distance back, leaving a stripe of irregular, low ground, indented with bays, 
the water in which was shallow. 

The summit level is at the south end of Lake Charles, from which the water flows 
into the Shubenacadie. The Dartmouth lakes, the first of the chain, empty themselves 
into Halifax Harbour, being sixty -five feet above high water, the rise from them to the summit 
level. Lake Charles, is only twenty-five feet, the distance Ijeing one mile. 

After reaching the northern extremity of Lake \V^illiam, nine miles from Dartmouth, 
the line crosses to the eastern shores of Lake Thomas, the next in the chain, and thence by 
the eastern shores of Lake Fletcher to the G-rand Lake. 

The western shores of these two lakes are bold and rocky, with deep water. The 
eastern are easy as respects curvatures, and the water is shallow, should it be necessary to 
build into them. 

The railway will, however, probably interfere with the present line of road. 

Should the terminus be in the City of Halifax, the line thence would join one coming 
from Dartmouth at the northern extremity of Fletcher's Lake, fifteen miles from Dart- 
mouth, and nineteen from Halifax. The latt3r would be consequently the longest by four 
miles. 

The summit level in the line from Halifax, between the waters flowing into Halifax 
Harbour and those falling into the Shubenacadie, is 232 feet above tide- water in the former. 
The gradients will be consequently more severe. 

For the first seven miles after leaving Halifax, the line follows the shores of the Bed- 
ford Basin, a portion of Halifax Harbour, which are broken and rocky. To obtain curves 
of half a mile radius, heavy embankments will be necessary across the deep bays; for the 
remainder, the expense and difficulties will be about the same with a line following the 
lakes. 

After leaving Bedford Basin, the line ascends the Valley of the Sackville River for 
about three miles. On the east side of this valley is the ridge of land separating the 
Halifax and Shubenacadie waters. 

The most favorable point ascertained for crossing this is about 5^ miles from the head 
of the Basin, and is 232 feet above its waters. The heaviest grade involved to reach this 
will be forty-three feet per mile for three miles. It will also involve a heavy embankment, 
about 700 feet long, between the summit level and the shores of the Long Lake, from 
which it will descend to the north end of Lake Fletcher, by the valley of the Rawdon 
River, where it joins the line from Dartmouth. 

Between the north end of Fletcher's Lake and the point where the line will strike the 
Grrand Shubenacadie Lake, are three ridges projecting into the lake, which will require to 
be cut through ; the two next the G-rand Lake being about thirty feet deep. Thence it 
follows the shore of the G^rand Lake for about three-quarters of a mile. The high land 
comes out close on the lake, but the water is shallow. 

Leaving the Lake shore at the 17* mile it crosses to the west shore of the Gasperean 
Lake. There is a low ridge between the two which will require cutting. 



43 



It will be necessary to carry the line along the shallow water on the west shore of the 
Gasperean Lake, leaving which it again strikes the shores of the Grand Lake at Sandy 
Cove, and follows it for half a mile to the outlet of the Shubenacadie lliver, which flows 
into the Bay of Fundy. 

After leaving the Grand Lake, the line for nineteen miles follows the general course 
of the Valley of the Shubenacadie Iliver, as far as the mouth of the Stewiacke River. 

About two miles from the Grand Lake, it crosses the Shubenacadie River, and then 
follows the western side of the valley, which comes in with an easy slope to the river, and 
offers no obstruction. An embankment of some eight or ten feet high will be required 
across the Valley of the Nine Mile River, from which, to Barney's Brook, at the 27th mile, 
the valley is broad and open, and nearly flat, and thence for a mile it will be on the level 
margin of the river. 

At this place, Black Rock Point, the land runs out high upon the river at both sides. 
A cutting will be necessary on the eastern side, about thirty feet deep, and a quarter of a 
mile long. 

The rock being Plaster of Paris, with a covering of clay, it will be easily quarried. 
The line then crosses the river, the valley of which is crooked below this point; and passes 
through the high land on the western side by a grade of about thirty feet per mile, for 
less than a mile, and thence descends into a broad flat. 

Between this and the mouth of the Stewiacke River, it crosses the Shubenacadie 
twice ; the ground offers no obstructions, except an embankment which will be required at 
the 31st mile, about six feet high, for one mile, where the line crosses the broad marshes 
of the Shubenacadie, which are flooded by high freshets. 

Between the crossing of the Stewiacke River, about 38 miles from Dartmouth, and 
the head of Truro mill-stream at the 50th mile, which is the water-shed of the Truro and 
Shubenacadie waters (145 feet above high water at Halifax), there will be several cuttings 
of from 15 to 20 feet deep, so that none of the gradients may exceed 40 feet in the mile, 
and these will be short. 

From the 50th mile the line descends by the V^alley of the Truro mill-stream, by an 
easy grade of about 17 feet per mile, to the Village of Truro, at the 55th mile, which it 
will pass a quarter of a mile to the westward, and cross the head of the Cobequid Bay by 
a bridge which will require to be about 500 feet long. From thence it commences the 
ascent of the range of hills known as the Cobequid Hills, which run north-east and south- 
west, nearly parallel with the bay, and directly across the line of the railway. 

The rock formation, through which the first portion of the line passes, ceases at the 
Grand Lake : from thence to Truro the country, generally speaking, is of a fertile descrip- 
tion, the hills being composed of a strong clay, with here and there limestone and gypsum 
rocks. The soil of the fertile valley in which Truro is situated, as well as the shores of 
the Cobequid Bay, is red sandstone. 

After crossing the head of the Cobequid Bay, the line passes along the southern slope 
of the hills to the foot of the ascent of the 66th mile. In this distance it will have to cross the 
Chiganois and De Buit Rivers, and the swell of land lying between them, the highest 
elevation being between those rivers about 170 feet above high-water, but none of the 
gradients, it is calculated, will exceed 40 feet per mile. 

The summit level which the line has to attain is by actual section determined to be 
600 feet above high water, being at the lake from which the Folly River flows. 

The section which has been accurately made, shows a gradient of one in 85 feet, 
or about 62 feet per mile, for 5f miles ; but by keeping a higher level, the ascent to the 
lake may be overcome by a grade of 57 feet per mile for 6 J miles. 

In this distance there are eight ravines to be crossed, four of which will require 
heavy bridges. 

The Valley of the Pinebrook will require a heavy embankment, material for which 
will be supplied by a deep cutting necessary at the crossing of the road beyond. 

The upper portion of the ascent, for four miles below the lake, is composed of hard 
igneous rocks, with a covering of earth in most places, but the rock will probably be met 
with if cuttings to any depth become necessary. 

At about four miles on the south side of the lake, 71 miles from Dartmouth, 
there is a breadth of about half a mile of conglomerates, shale and sandstone, in which a 



44 



valuable deposit of speculative iron ore has been discovered : it is of very rich quality, 
and operations have been commenced by a company to work it. 

The heavy grade ceases at the saw rcill, half a mile below the lake, in which distance 
there are three small ridges to cut through, which will furnish material for crossing the 
shallow arm of the lake ; thence the western shore is nearly straight, with shallow water, 
admitting of a level line, with easy curvatures, along its margin. 

At the 75th mile a small ridge at the north end of the lake separates its waters 
from those of the Wallace J{iver. 

The descent from the lake is very rapid into the valley watered by that river. By 
actual measurement it has been ascertained that the ground falls 356 feet in the first three 
miles northwardly from the lake ; thence the valley is broad and flat. The hills on the 
eastern side rise very abruptly, those on the western side having a gentler slope towards 
the valley, afford the most favorable ground for the location of the railway. 

The actual section line, which has been run at a gradient of 70 feet per mile, 
may be improved upon by keeping a higher level, and the descent may be overcome 
by a gradient of about 66 feet per mile for 4f miles along the western side of the valley. 

Here the hills turn abruptly to the westward, and on reaching the foot of this descent,' 
at the 79th mile, some cutting will be necessary to carry the line with a radius of half 
a mile for one mile, round the shoulder of the hills. 

A lesser range of hills lies north of the Cobequid range, which, at this point, is sep- 
arated from them by the valley of one branch of the Wallace River which the line ascends 
for 2i miles, at a grade of thirty-five feet per mile, and thence passes through this lesser 
range by the valley of the west branch of the Wallace River. Then crossing the valley 
of the ]jittle Wallace River, it falls, at a grade of thirty-five feet per mile, to the valley 
watered by TuUoap's Creek, by which it descends at easy grades for about seven miles to 
the 95th mile, where it turns the shoulder of the ridge of land lying east of the River 
Philip by a curve of three quarters of a mile radius, involving some cutting, but to no 
great depth. 

From thence it descends at a grade of twenty feet per mile for four miles along the 
fertile valley of the River Philip, which it will cross at a short distance below the con- 
fluence of the Black River, and ascend, for five miles, by the valley of the Little River, 
by a very easy grade. 

From this to Bay Verte the country presents a very level appearance, and the line 
will probably deviate but little from a direct line. 

The gradients will be most favorable, and none, it is expected, will exceed fifteen 
feet per mile. 

At the 120th mile, the line crosses the Tidnish River, about a mile above its mouth, 
and thence follows the level shores of the Bay Verte, at the distance of from one to half 
a mile. 

It leaves the Province of Nova Scotia 124 miles from Halifax Harbour. 

The section of country traversed by the line, from the Cobequid Hills to Bay Verte, 
is, generally speaking, through light soil of good quality. There is little or no rock. 
Should any be met with, it will be sandstone, furnishing excellent building material. 

Much of this portion of Nova Scotia is well cultivated and populous. 

The line from Bay Verte enters the Province of New Brunswick, and as far as the 
crossing of the Miramichi River, at the 22ord mile, although running nearly at right 
angles to the course of the rivers flowing into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, will deviate but 
little from a general straight course and from the level nature of the country, although it 
will have to cross the swells of land lying between the different rivers, it may be expected 
confidently that the heaviest gradients will not exceed 40 feet per mile, the generality 
being very favorable. 

As iar as the Cocayne River the country traversed by the line is very level. The 
section line, which was run along the head waters of the rivers flowing into the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, shows that the highest point is little more than 200 feet. 

By following the general direction laid down on the plan, dependent, of course, upon 
the bridge sites which shall be selected on the different rivers, no difficulties of a serious 
nature will be encountered. IShould any cuttings be necessary, they will not be expensive, 
as no rock is likely to be met with. 



I 



45 



The section of country which will be opened up between Bay Yerte and the Richi- 
bucto River, offers much excellent land for settlement. From thence towards the head 
waters of the Rouchibouguac are extensive flat barrens, and the country between that and 
Miramichi is very level. 

The rivers are all small • and no heavy bridpjing will, it is expected, be required. 

It is proposed to cross the south-west branch of the Miramichi River near the head 
of the tide, opposite the mouth of Indian Town Brook. It will require a bridge about 
500 feet long and 30 feet high. There are heavy freshets in this river; but no damage 
need be apprehended to a well-constructed bridge, either from ice or freshets. 

Between this and the north-west Miramichi River a detour will be necessary to the 
westward, to avoid ihe swell of land between these two rivers, and which runs to an 
elevation of about 300 feet. The line crossing the Miramichi, opposite to the mouth of 
the Indian Town Brook, will ascend by the valley to that brook, and then diverge to the 
westward, through a flat cedar country, to the north-west Miramichi River, which it 
crosses at the 284th mile, by a bridge which will require to be 2,000 feet long and 30 feet 
high, the river here being very wide and shallow. A sight requiring a bridge of less 
strength may probably be selected on further examination. 

From the line follows the broad valley watered by ike north-west Miramichi, as far as 
the 260th mile, at gradients varying but slightly from a level, excepting the first five 
miles, which will require gradients of about 25 feet per mile. The land between the 
north-west Miramichi waters and the Nipisiguit River traversed by the line is almost a 
dead level ; and it descends to that river by a grade of 25 feet per mile for three miles. 

It is proposed to cross the Nipisiguit River near the Pabineau Falls, and after follow- 
ing the valley of the Nipisiguit a short distance it continues as far as the 325th mile to 
follow the general direction of the shores of the Bay Chaleurs, passing within a short 
distance of the Town of Bathurst. 

The precise direction of the line will of course depend upon the bridge sites selected 
on the several streams and rivers flowing into the Bay Chaleurs. 

As far as the 305th mile, the land is very level, and the streams small. The Jaquet 
River lies in a large deep valley, but it is believed may be approached and crossed about 
four miles from its mouth without any great difficulty. 

The gradients on this portion of the line will be found very favorable, and will not, it 
is calculated, exceed seventeen feet per mile, the greater portion being very much less. 

The shores of the Bay Chaleurs are thickly populated. The inhabitants near Bathurst 
are chiefly Canadian French. Towards the Restigouche the inhabitants are principally 
Scotch, many of them having excellent farms. 

After reaching the valley watered by the Eel River, the line may approach the Res- 
tigouche River, either by following the valley of the Eel River to its source, and thence by 
the valleys of several small stream?, and reach that river either at the mouth of Christo- 
pher's Brook, seven miles above Campbellton, or at a point five miles above that. 

The summit level at the head waters of the Eel River has been calculated at 368 feet, 
which will probably be found too high. This would involve a grade of about 18 feet per 
mile for 16 miles. 

It will perhaps be better to avoid this gradient and the curves which will be necessary 
in descending the valleys of the small streams flowing into the Restigouche, to cross the 
Eel River and pass through the range of hills lying south of the River Restigouche, about 
five miles from the Town of Dalhousie. The hill which rises immediately in the rear of 
that town here falls away almost to the level of the country about Eel River, and from 
thence the line would follow the bank of the Restigouche, passing through the Village of 
Campbellton, and continuing between the present road and the shore as far as the mouth 
of Christopher's Brook. The gradients on this portion would be very slight. 

Opposite to and above the mouth of Christopher's Brook, the Restigouche is full of 
islands ; the mountains especially on the south shore, come down boldly to the river ; and 
it is proposed to take advantage of these islands to cross the broad channel of the river to 
the more favorable ground on the north shore. 

There is no accurate survey of these islands, but they are so numerous that the ex- 
pense of bridging will not be greater than if the line were to cross above, when it would 
require a bridge at least 1,800 feet long and a heavy embankment on the north shore. 



46 



The danger from the rush of the ice freshets, which sometimes occur in the spring of the 
year in this river, will be less if the bridge be carried over among these islands. 

After crossing the Restigouche River, the line will follow the north bank as far as 
the mouth of the Metapediac River, at the 350th mile. 

The section of country lying between the Restigouche and St. Lawrence Rivers is a 
vast tract of high land, intersected in every direction by deep valleys and vast ravines, 
through which the rivers flowing to the St. Lawrence and Restigouche wind their course. 

The height of land from which these rivers flow respectively north and south, is full 
of lakes, and along them the mountain ranges rise to a great elevation. 

The average distance between these two rivers is about 100 miles. 

The only available valley which my knowledge of the country, or the explorations we 
have carried on, enable me to report upon, by which a line of railway can be carried 
through this mass of highlands, is that of the Metapediac River. 

This valley extends from the Restigouche to the Great Metapediac Lake, a distance 
of between 60 and 70 miles ; and as the summit level to be attained in that distance is 
only 763 feet above tide-water, the gradients, generally speaking, are extremely favorable. 

From the broken and rocky character of this section of country, some portions of this 
part of the line will be expensive, especially the first twenty miles of the ascent, in which 
the hills in many places come out boldly to the river, and will render it necessary to cross 
it in several places. 

The rock formation is nearly all slate. There are settlements on the Metapediac 
River, as far as the Mill-stream. 

Grenerally speaking, however, the greater portion of this section of country is unfit for 
cultivation, consisting of a gravelly rocky soil, covered with an endless forest of spruce, 
pine, birch, cedar, &c. 

From the mouth of the river, as far as the 365th mile, the line continues upon the 
east bank. Aboye this, at the mouth of Clark's Brook, the rocky bank of the river is very 
unfavorable, and to obtain proper curves, it crosses to the point opposite, and then recrosses 
immediately above, to the more favorable ground on the east bank. 

Between this and the mouth of the Ammetssquagau River, the line, to obtain good 
curves and avoid those places where the hills copae out bold and rocky, crosses the river 
four times. 

The position of the line for three miles above and below the Ammetssquagau River, 
where the hills are steep and rocky close on the river, will be the most expensive part of 
the line. 

Above this the line follows the eastern bank to the 377th mile. The hills on either 
side are very high, but the eastern bank is pretty favorable. Between the 378th and 380th 
mile, the river turns twice almost at right angles, shut in on the south by a rocky precipice 
150 feet high. 

It will be necessary to cross the river three times here. The centre bridge will be a 
heavy one, but there is an island in the elbow, which will serve as a natural pier. Above 
this from the 380th mile to the forks (the mouth of the Casupscul River) at the 395th 
mile, the valley becomes more favorable. The hills on either side are not so lofty, and 
recede further from the river. The line crosses the river twice between the 385th and 
390th mile, to avoid a rocky precipice on the left bank; and again about one mile below 
the Forks, making in the first 38 miles up the Valley of the Metapediac, twelve bridges 
in all. These bridges will average from 120 to 150 yards long. 

From the 395th mile to the Metapediac Lake, the line continues on the eastern side 
of the valley; the ground is stony and uneven. The gradients will be very favorable, and, 
with exception of *^.The Grave,^' at the 405th mile, where there is a rocky spur running 
out on the river, there are no very serious difficulties. 

The line again crosses the river at the 409th mile, and from thence follows the eastern 
side of the Metapediac Lake to the 420th mile. 

The mountain ranges to the westward are very lofty. There are two spurs running 
out on the lake, at the southern end, which the line turns at easy curves close to the shore; 
beyond this it passes through a cedar swamp into more lavorable ground at Brochers, 
clearing at the north end of the lake ; from this it ascends to the summit level, 763 feet 



47 



above tide-water, at the 426th mile. This is the water-shed between the Restigouche and 
St. Lawrence waters; 

Between this and the St. Lawrence the country is intersected and crossed by a con- 
stant succession of ridges, rising to a considerable elevation between the different small 
tributaries of the Tartigau and Metis Rivers. The line descends at easy grades by the 
valley of the former to the 432nd mile, where it turns to the westward, and ascends to the 
435th mile, by the valley of one of its small tributaries. The water-shed here between 
the waters of the Metis and Tartigau is about 750 feet, and the descent from this to the 
M^tis, by the Valley of Pachet's Brook, is rapid, and will involve a grade of fifty-five feet 
per mile, for eight miles, which will carry the line clear of the highlands. 

Further explorations may probably suggest improvements upon this line through the 
highlands, which, however, as far as regards gradients and curves, is as favorable as can 
be expected. 

A party was sent to explore for a line from the Metapcdiac River, westward, following 
the valley of one of its tributaries, and thence across to the Rimouski River, and, from the 
reports I received from them, it appears probable that a practicable line may be obtained 
following the Valley of Metallic's Brook, five miles below the forks of the Metapediac, 
and along a succession of lakes to the Rimouski, and thence by the Valley of the Torcadie 
River to the Abersquash, and by its valley to the point where the proposed line crosses it. 

It would require a whole season to explore this section of country. 

The proposed line, after descending the Valley of Pachet's Brook and the Valley of 
the River Metis, crosses the river at the 445th mile, about ten miles above its mouth, and 
ascends by the Valley of the River Haget, one of its tributaries, almost on a level to the 
water-shed at the 459th mile between the Metis and Rimouski waters, and descends to that 
river at the 469th mile, at a grade of 44 feet per mile, for five miles. 

The Rimouski River lies in a deep valley, and the line descends to it at this grade by 
the valley of the ^' Ruisseau Bois Brule,'^ to gain the opposite valley of the Rigamard 
stream, by which it is proposed to ascend to the table land lying between it and the Trois 
Pistoles River. A bridge, 500 feet long and 40 feet high, will be required across the 
Rimouski, as it is necessary to pass it opposite the mouth of the Rigamard. The hills on 
either side for the first two or three miles of this valley are steep ; above that it widens, 
and the line reaches the table-land which extends to the Trois Pistoles River, at a grade 
which it is calculated will not be more than 20 feet per mile for six miles. 

An improvement on this line may, perhaps, be made by descending the valley of the 
River Bois Brul^, and ascending by the valley of the stream of the Little Rimouski. 

The line proceeds at almost nominal grades to the Abersquash River, which it crosses 
at the 500th mile. 

Four miles further the table-land is intersected by the deep ravine formed by the 
stream of the Trois Pistoles River. 

This will require a heavy bridge. The width between the banks at top is 300 feet, 
the stream at the bottom is 100 feet wide; the ravine being 350 feet deep, it will be 
necessary to have the centre span as large as possible, to diminish the great height re- 
quired for the piers. 

The line from this continues at very favorable grades, crossing the Rivi6re du Loup 
at the 527th mile, about five miles above its mouth, and thence (either in the second or 
third concession) for 100 miles through a densely populated country, of the most favorable 
description, to the Boyer River at the 620th mile, from which it rises to Beaumont Church, 
278 feet above tide water, and descends at a moderate grade for about nine miles, to Point 
Levi, opposite the City of Quebec. 

(Signed,) a. W. W. HENDERSON, 

Captain, Royal Engineers. 

Major W. Robinson, R.E., 

&c., &c., &c. , 



48 



Ta\BLE of probable Gradients on proposed Halifax and Quebec Railway. 



Prevailing Gradients, 


Canada. 

Quebec to Resti- 
gouche River. 


New Brunswick. 

Reatigouche River 
to Bay Verte. 


Nova Scotia. 

Bay Verte to Hali- 
fax Harbour. 


Total. 


Level and under 20 feet per mile, 
20 to 40 ftet " 
40 to 50 feet '' 
50 to 60 feet " 
60 to 70 feet " 


Miles. 

222 

42 

5 

8 

None. 


Miles. 
151 

71 
8 

4* 
None. 


Miles. 

6G 

37 

10 

7 

4 


Miles. 

439 

150 

23 

19 

4 


Total 


277 


234 


124 


635 







This gradient will be avoided by following the Restigouche instead of the Eel River, 



(Signed,) 



G. W. W. HENDERSON. 

Captaiiij Royal Engineers. 



APPENDIX No. 2. 



Plans referred to:— Nos, 17, 18, 1?. 



Report on the Explorations from the Miramichi Lake, across the Valley of the Tohique^ to 

the Restigouche River. 

The explorations carried on during the autumn of 1846, having shown that the chief 
difficulties to be encountered by any line of railway passing through the central portion 
of New Brunswick was the large valley watered by the river Tobique, which, running 
directly across the general direction of the line, must be crossed by it; and that the 
height of land on the southern side was of great elevation. The explorations were directed 
in the following year (1847) to ascertain the practicability of ascending to this height of 
land from the table land between the waters of the Miramichi and Naswaak Kivers to the 
westward of Boistown, and to which there is easy approach from the level country to the 
southward; and having gained that height of land south of the Tobique River, to ascer- 
tain the practicability of crossing its valley at the most favorable grades. 

This valley is about 30 miles wide. The highlands bounding it on the south side 
are very lofty. The lowest point at which they can be passed, as ascertained by our ex- 
plorations, being at a point about nineteen miles south of the River ; 1,216 feet above the 
sea, or 874 above the river. 

The height of land or water-shed on the north side of the valley is about twelve miles 
from the river, and 418 feet above it, 838 feet above the sea. 

The exploration was commenced between the Napadogan Lake and the Miramichi 
Lake, about 20 miles north of the portage road from Boistown to Fredericton. 

The line which has been reported upon as practicable involves, as will be seen, very 
beavy grades. 

'From the point of starting the line descends at a grade of about 54 feet per mile for 
two miles to the Miramichi Lake ; thence it passes through a dry spruce country to the 
south-west of Miramichi River, which it reaches at the fifth mile ; from this it follows the 
valley of that river for seven miles, at very easy grades, to the forks of the river, where it 
crosses the west branch and descends by the valley of the north branch, as shown by the 



49 



black line on the Plan to tlie point D, at the 21 J mile, at easy grades, shown by the red 
line on the Section , none exceeding 16 feet per mile. 

Then it meets a ridge of land which will cause it to diverge to the eastward, and 
involve a grade of about 50 feet per mile for two miles ; and thence follows the valley of 
the north branch of the AJiramichi, at a gradient of 44 feet per mile. The valley here is 
very narrow and broken, the highlands coming in close on either side. 

The line leaves the valley of the River Miramichi at the 26th mile, and follows the 
valley of one of its tributaries, called the Dead Water Brook, at the same grade of 44 feet 
per mile to the 28th mile, at the point F. 

From this it continues along the same valley, but at an easier grade of 20 feet per 
mile, to the water-shed between the Tobique and the Miramichi Eivers, 1,205 feet above 
the sea, at the 30^ mile. 

The Odell and Beaver Brooks take their rise on this height of land, being tributaries 
of the Tobique, and the line attains its summit level, 1,216 feet above the sea, at the small 
lake which is the source of the Odell, at the 31st mile. 

A small ridge divides this lake from the waters of the Beaver Brook, which would 
have to be cut through. 

Fr^ this point commences the descent into the Valley of the Tobique. 

The direct descent by the Valley of the Odell, &c., had been found impracticable, 
the fall being far too rapid. 

The most favorable gradient, which can be maintained, is one of 58 feet per mile, 
for nine miles, by keeping along the side of the hills as far as the River du Chute, 
crossing several streams, one of which, that of Beaver Brook, will require heavy bridging. 

After crossing the River du Chute, which will also require a heavy bridge, the 
line descends, at a gradient of 15 feet per mile, for three miles. 

Here it has to cross the Valley of the River Wapsky, about two miles wide, which 
will involve an ascending and descending grade of 66 feet per mile, each one mile, and 
a bridge of 40 feet high across the stream. 

This point (0 2 on the plan) is the water-shed between the Wapsky and the Little 
Grulquae, and the line descends, at a gradient of 48 feet per mile, for 5^ miles, to the 
Biver Tobique, by the Valley of the Little Gulquac. 

The Tobique, which the line crosses at the 50th mile, will require a heavy bridge, 
50 or 60 feet high ; the river is about 442 feet wide ; on the south side the bank is 
bold and favorable for bridging, on the north is an interval flat, which will increase the 
length of the bridge to about : feet. 

After crossing the Tobique, the line, keeping to the westward of that actually ex- 
plored, ascends, for the first five miles, at a gradient of about 20 feet to the mile, through 
a dry level tract of country. 

From this the grade increases to about 44 feet per mile for three miles, to the point 
E, from which the line ascends by the valley of the west branch of the stream, called the 
Two Brooks, for four miles, at a grade of about 43 feet per mile. 

It continues to ascend at this j^rade for four miles (to the point a), the water-shed 
between the Tobique and Salmon Rivers, being 12 miles south of the former and 418 
feet above it. 

Thence the line keeps westward of the exploratory line, avoiding the high ground 
crossed by it, following the valleys of the Salmon and Grand Rivers. 

The first of these, it is calculated, will involve an ascending and descending grade 
of 20 feet per mile each four miles. 

The line wall ascend to the water-shed, between the Grand River and Beaver Brook, 
a tributary of the Restigouche River, about 920 feet above the sea, by an easy grade of 
about eight feet per mile. 

From this point at the 78 i mile (h on plan) it descends to the Restigouche River, 
by the Valley of Beaver Brook. 

It is calculated that the first 4i miles will require a grade of 45 feet to the mile, and 
thence one of about 24 feet to the Restigouthe River, about 11 miles. The whole dis- 
tance being obout 94 miles from the Miramichi Lake. 

Other valleys also exist by which it is believed the Restigouche may be reached, 
after leaving the Tobique Valley, and bv about the same grades. 

7 



50 



The Valley of Boston Brook would bring the line to the Restigouche more to the 
westward ', that of Jardine's Brook would carry it more to the eastward and nearer to 
the valley of the Kedgwick River, which is the only tributary of the Restigouche, by 
which it is believed a practicable route can be obtained through the highlands between 
the Restigouche and St. Lawrence Rivers, on this general direction. 

The tract of country which this line passes thorough, and would open up north of 
the River Tobique, is very excellent soil, and offers fine land for settlements. 

(Signed,) G. W. W. HENDERSON, 

Captain, UoyaL Engineers. 

Major W. Robinson, R.E., 
&c., &c., &0. 



APPENDIX NO. 3. 



Sketches attached. 



Report of Mr. Wilkinson. 

Eredericton, December 31, 1847. 

Sir, — I have the honor to state to you the general results of the exploratory survey 
in which I have been engaged, under your direction, during the past summer and autumn, 
with the view to a discovery in part of a line favorable for a railway between Quebec and 
Halifax. In doing so, I will as much as possible observe the brevity which you desire me 
to regard as sufficient. 

Passing by the subject of preliminary arrangements, and the circumstances which 
controlled the selection of the lines examined, it will be sufficient to say, that the general 
object was to discover a favorable route between the Valley of the Abawisquash, a branch 
of the Trois Pistoles, and a point on the Restigouche River, favorable for union with 
another division of the general line, in progress of exploration by Corporal Dumble, from 
the Valley of the Tobique River. 

The line first examined I will describe as Route No. 1, so distinguished in the sketch 
hereto annexed. 

Between the head of Lac des lies, discharging itself into the Toledi, and the Abawis- 
quash River, is a low depression in the summit level, or height of land, favorable, as I 
believe, for our object. From this point the ground appears generally practicable, follow- 
ing the margin of Lac des lies, and thence the course of its discharge towards the outlet 
of Eagle Lake, a distance by estimation of about nine miles. From Eagle Lake, it is very 
probable that a communication with the Rimouski would be found by following the valley 
of the left hand branch of the Toledi to its source, and thence descending the Valley of the 
Touradi. But the more direct course, by Route No. 1, was experimentally continued. 
Between Eagle Lake and the Middle branch of the Toledi is a continuous ridge of 300 or 
400 feet average elevation above the former. Like other ridges in the neighborhood, it 
consists of much good land for settlement, but apparently affords no pass suitable for our 
object, within an extent of six or seven miles. On exploring from the Middle branch 
westerly to the head of the lake, however, the descent appeared to exceed the ascent as 
much as 150 or 200 feet. A very direct communication would therefore be ineligible. 
The course to be recommended passes by an easy curve southward of the lake and the 
southern extremity of the ridge in the manner indicated in the sketch ; thence, north- 
easterly by the Valley of the Middle branch. Where the line would enter this valley the 
general inclination is apparently about 25 or 30 feet per mile, until approaching within 
about three miles of the last of four successive rapids or falls. It is probable that the 
inclination here may be from 40 to 60 feet per mile, until wo reach the dead or smooth 



51 



water. The banks of the Middle branch afford only a small extent of flat ground, say from 
one to three chains in width, on each side alternately, seldom on both sides at once ; but 
the slope of the rising ground is commonly moderate, and without abrupt angles or turns, 
with the exception of the three miles just mentioned. Here some degree of difficulty 
might occur in determining the best site for the line. A small extent of rock cutting at 
one or two points, would probably be necessary. Time did not permit an instrumental 
examination of the ground, but nothing like impracticability is indicated. 

Passing the Falls, the Valley of Middle branch south is level for a distance of about 
seven miles in a direct line south-westerly, including, in that distance, a lake of about two 
miles in extent. The bed of the valley consists of an alluvial deposit of great depth, 
through which the stream has a very tortuous channel, with a current scarcely perceptible, 
frequently very deep, and always remarkably clear. The next five miles of this valley 
ascend somewhat rapidly, say at the rate of 40 to 50 feet per raile. 

From a distant but commanding point of view, I judged that the remaining rise might 
not be less favorable; but upon examination of the last four miles, the rate of ascent proved 
to be much more objectionable. The result, however, of a series of elevations and depres- 
sions, taken by your directions over this portion of the route, and which at leisure moments 
have been somewhat hurriedly computed, do not warrant me in saying that the rate of 
inclination of the four miles in question is more than objectionable. Its practicability is, 
I believe, proved by at least two examples of much steeper inclined planes daily ascended 
by locomotive power, with both passengers and freight. I refer to the Lickey Inclined 
Plane of one in thirty-seven on the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway, and another of 
one in thirty-four, which I undei*stand to exist on the Hartlepool and Stockton. The 
sketch hereto annexed (No. 1) exhibits v/ith regard to these the proportion of the more 
favorable acclivity, by which it appears practicable to escape from the valley of the branch 
of the Toledi under examination. No exploration has however been made in order to dis- 
cover facilities, the existence of which I am not prepared to doubt, of improving or avoid- 
ing this aclivity. Much lateral exploration must at some points be expected. We could 
scarcely hope that we should succeed, at the first attempt, without map or guide, in passing 
through a wide extent of primeval and almost unknown forest, over a line in no respect 
objectionable. 

Passing the summit level at the source of the Middle branch south, the route descends 
by the valley of the north-west branch of Green River. For the first five miles the rate of 
inclination is very moderate, deviating but little from a level; two lakes and much small 
water being included in that distance. From thence to the confluence of the east branch 
of Green River, a less regular and and often more rapid descent is indicated. In the 
judicious distribution of the irregularities over a continuous descent in actual construction 
however, I am not prepared to say, that an inclination exceeding 30 or 35 feet per mile 
would anywhere be necessary. 

Descending the last nine miles of the north-west branch, the valley becomes moro 
contracted, the flat margin generally narrower, the banks steeper and higher, and the turns 
more abrupt. But these characteristics do not become so remarkable as apparently to affect 
the practicability of this portion of the route, until we approach to within about three 
miles of the conflux of the two branches, or upper fork of the main Green River ; nor do 
they continue of the same kind beyond about two miles along the eastern branch. 

This part of the line having come under your personal observation in order to ascer- 
tain its practicability, by curves of admissible radius, a more particular survey of the 
apparent obstacles, and a rough plot of the same, were made for your satisfaction. For 
more ready illustration I avail myself of a trace from the original. No. 2, hereunto annexed, 
to which I beg leave to refer. 

From A to I, being a distance of four miles and about 30 chains, are introduced six 
curves, of one mile radius each, arranged in a manner, the effect of which would be as 
follows: — From A to the cutting would be insignificant; at B, about five or six chains 
in extent, partly of clay, slate may occur; at the point D, perhaps for an extent of ten 
chains in each direction, deep cutting may be necessary, but no sufficient examination has 
been made to determine this fact; or whether to some extent, a gap or depression may not 
exist, as at the point G. From E to I, the cutting would apparently be light, these points 
|)eing nearly on the same common level with the intervening point G, or say thirty or 



52 



forty feet above the surface of the water at the confluence of the two branches. In order 
that in this part of the valley the roadway may be clear of water, snow, ice, and driftwood, 
at all times, perhaps a less elevation than about ten feet above the lowest level of the 
stream could not be recommended. 

Assuming that the maximum depth of cutting to be admitted, should not exceed 
twenty-five feet, then the highest ground which could be intersected, would be thirty-five 
feet above the lowest level of the water. With the exception of the point D, the elevation 
of which is uncertain, it does not appear, from the facts ascertained, that the intersection 
of any point so high as thirty-five feet, would be necessary, in order to obtain curves of one 
mile radius ; on that cutting approaching to twenty-five feet in depth, would occur to an 
aggregate extent exceeding fifty or sixty chains along the portion of the line shown on the 
sketch. Were it a desideratum to pass this, apparently the most confined and crooked 
portion of the route, without cutting, it would appear that curves of from twenty to eighty 
chains radius, would accomplish our object. 

Pursuing the route along the east branch by an ascent apparently not exceeding 
thirty feet per mile, another branch occurs on the left, distinguished on the sketch as 
" Otter Branch.^' An opening here to the eastward was noted for further exploration. In 
the meantime, following the main stream about due south for three miles, another opening 
claims attention. It was at first deemed probable that this would lead to the source of the 
main Eestigouche. It may indeed lead to a favorable communication with this stream. 
But it was subsequently discovered, as it will be again necessary to notice, that the opening 
in question was really at the head of the valley of a principal branch of Grreen River, dis- 
tinguished on the sketch as Green River East. Resuming the exploration at the end of 
the southerly range just noticed, of the east branch, this stream again turns suddenly to 
the eastward, flowing somewhat tortuously through a narrow valley bounded by very high 
hills, and having a fall varying from sixty to ninety feet per mile. Having traced the 
stream to its source in a pass between high hills, and continuing an easterly course, wc 
shortly meet with a spring, no doubt a tributary of the Restigouche, flowing south-easterly 
down a narrow and deep ravine. Crossing the head of this ravine, and passing over a high 
ridge, we descend suddenly 700 or 800 feet into the valley of the object of our search, the 
Gounamitz, a principal branch of the Restigouche. It was deemed probable that the 
source of the east branch of Green River, and that of the Gounamitz, might prove to be 
continuous and nearly on the same level. But it was now manifest, that the source of the 
former was in a high group of hills, bounding not the source, but the main Valley of the 
Gounamitz, where this stream is still comparatively large, say forty feet wide, with a brisk 
and copious current. Satisfied of the uofavorable prospect of a communication at this 
point, with Valley of the Restigouche, I returned to the opening by way of the Valley of 
the Otter Branch. Circumstances prevented my personal examination of the ground in 
this direction ; but Mr. Ramsay, to whom I confided that service, reports that the source 
of the Otter Branch is surrounded by high ground without an opening ; but that about 
two miles from the mouth of the stream, on its right or .northern bank, is a low depression, 
aftbrding a favorable communication with the valley of a stream flowing northwardly and 
eastwardly, and no doubt a tributary of the Restigouche. It is most probably the main 
branch of the south branch of the Quatawamkedgwick. He followed this newly discovered 
stream downwards, to where it receives a branch from the south, and then traced this 
branch upwards nearly to its source. By climbing he had a good view southerly beyond 
the source, and down the Valley of the Gounamitz, but was prevented, by unfavorable 
weather and other hindrances, from completing all I had directed him to perform. He 
does not doubt, however, the existence of a practicable communication between the east 
branch of Green River and the valley of the Gounamitz by the route he examined ; but 
there will be about two to three miles of rough ground and steep banks. Whether 
these may occasion any real difficulty, an instrumental examination here, as well ss at other 
points which have been noticed, will be necessary to determine. The general fact of prac- 
ticability or otherwise, was, under the circumstances, all that we could hope to ascertain. 

A route has now been traced from the Valley of the Abawisquash, to the Valley of the 
Gounamitz, which, with such corrections as might be expected would be necessary on a 
first examination, I believe to be practicable. I have also no reason to doubt, but many to 
induce me to confide in the practicability of the Valley of the Gounamitz down to tlie Reg- 



53 



tigouclie, with a "jeneral inclinatiou, varying from 30 to 50 feet per mile. From its mouth 
is a favorable communication down the left bank of the Restigouche, to a point opposite 
the entrance of Beaver or Boston Brook, the termination of Corporal Bumble's route from 
the Tobiquc before mentioned. A bridge of 100 or 120 feet span at this part of the Res- 
tigouche would be necessary, and would probably be the only one of so large a span from 
hence to the St. Lawrence. In that distance numerous bridges will bo required; but they 
will be generally small, and neither their number nor their several sites could be deter- 
mined *,Tithout an instrumental demarcation of the line. 

In order to explain the further course of the exploration, it is necessary to say, that, 
after tracing the eastbi'anch of Green River to its source, and being yet uncertain of any 
favorable descent into the valley of the Restigouche^ whilst that into the Valley of the 
Tokdi also remains unimproved, it seemed probable that the abandonment of the Valley 
of Green River might eventually be necessary. The hope of avoiding this alternative 
seemed to rest upon the success of the three lateral explorations; the first, that by way of 
the Otter Branch, the success of which has already been mentioned ; the second, that by 
way of the southerly opening, towards the supposed head of the Restigouche; the third, 
■with a view to the discovery of a more favorable descent to the north-west branch of Green 
River, into one of the more northerly valleys of the Toledi^ or, if necessary, into the 
Yalley of the Rimouski. 

Leaving Mr. Ramsay with directions to make these three explorations, as far as prac- 
ticable, I proceeded to employ as much as might be available of the rapidly advancing 
season, in order to ascertain, by canoe, the character of such other routes as the country 
might afi"ord from the Restigouche north-westwardly. The routes I had in view are dis- 
tinguished on the sketch as No. 2 and No. 3. 

Omitting the circumstancial matters of the exploration, I will commence my descrip- 
tion at the Wagau Stream, the most southerly branch of the Restigouche. From hence, 
at an ascertained elevation of about 550 feet above the level of the sea, appears to be a 
favorable range of comparatively flat country, as observed from several commanding points 
of view, and as described by those who have passed over it towards the Sisson Branch, a 
favorable stream of moderate current, tlirough a fiat valley, and joining the main Tobique 
River, where the elevation has also been approximately ascertained at about 600 feet above 
the sea. The exploration of this extension of our route, continued by way of the right- 
liand branch of the Tobique towards Boistown, would pgrobably have occupied the remain- 
ing portion of the season, had circumstances permitted me to leave the country behind me 
with satisfaction. This route, as marked by the dotted line in the sketch, is not much 
less favorable for communication with Route No. 1 than with No. 3; but natural obstacles 
would render it apparently mere difficult for continuation north-westward by Route No. 2. 

I may indeed here remark, that natural obstacles seem to magnify, both to the north 
and south of the Restigouche, as we advance eastward. Above the confiuence of the 
Wagan, the banks of the Restigouche are comparatively favorable all the way up the 
stream as far as explored or observed. Descending the same stream below the TVagan, 
the banks becoire more abrupt and steep, but arc neithe/ so close or angular but that 
much cutting may be avoided by occasional bridging, and the inclination of the valley is 
very favorable. 

The mean rate of descent from' the Wagan to the sea cannot exceed seven feet per 
mile by the course of the river, but the much greater part of the aggregate descent must 
apparently occur above the Quatawamkedgwick, and cannot be estimated at a less mean 
rate than ten to fifteen feet per mile. But, diverging from the Valley of the Restigouche 
by Route No. 1, we find the banks of the Gounamitz higher and steeper than those of the 
head of the Restigouche, by Route No. 3, and again we find the banks of the Quatawam- 
kedgwick, by Route No. 2, still higher and steeper than either, rising, in fact, 1,000 or 
1,200 feet, very abruptly, above the bed of the river. 

With regard to the last mentioned route, it was at first my design to explore the 
Quatawamkedgwick, by canoe, to its extreme northerly source, to have found the most 
favorable communication thence to the Valley of the Rimouski, and to have explored the 
latter as far ag practicable. ]^ut insufficient opportunity of preparation, the advanced 
state of the season, and unforeseen causes of delay, obliged me to abandon the more difficult 
part of the undertaking, and I discontinued my ascent of the Quatawamkedgwick about q. 



54 



mile up the north or main branch, returning thence and ascending by the south branch, 
less for the purpose of exploration than for a more direct return to the party I had left at 
Grreen Eiver. As far as I am able to speak from personal observation of Route No. 2, the 
rate of inclination of the Valley of the Quatawamkedgwick is no doubt favorable, say not 
exceeding 15 to 30 feet per mile up to the south branch. Above this point, the inclina- 
tion of both the north and south branehes appears to be steeper, at least for some distance, 
say not less than 35 feet per mile ; but I have reason to believe that towards the head of 
each of these branches, but especially the north branch, there is much flat ground. But 
to render these inclinations available, however, it is most probable that the amount of 
bridging and cutting would prove to he heavy, owing to the very limited portion of flat 
margin, and the abruptly steep, and generally rocky character of the banks. An exact 
survey might prove these obstacles to be more avoidable than they appear to be ; but 
without such survey, no safe opinion could be for^ied. 

These remarks will be understood to apply only to the main Quatawamkedgwick. 
The valley at the south branch is at several poiots wholly unfavorable for a railway, but it 
aff'ords lateral openings which might be available. 

Upon returning to Grreen River, by way of the portage from the south branch, I 
found that the party I left there, having explored the Otter Branch Route, and cut out 
and surveyed the portage, had proceeded on their way to explore from the north-western 
branch of Green River, with the view already explained ; but having met you on the way, 
received your directions to return, and to explore more minutely the apparently objection- 
able part of the Valley of Green River, before described, and shown in Sketch No. 2, until 
I should rejoin them. This circumstance fortunately coincided with directions which in 
the meantime I had found it necessary to send them, to return and meet me at the portage ; 
foreseeing, in consequence of unexpected casualties and delays that it would be imprac- 
ticable to rejoin them either in the Valley of the Rimouski, or of the Toledi, as at first 
intended. 

We had already been warned by snow and severe frost that only a small portion of 
the season remained. It appeared most desirable that this should be employed in tracing 
the supposed communication southerly from the east branch of Green River to the head 
of the Restigouche, and to join the survey to the end of my exploration by canoe, a little 
above the branch distinguished as '• Return Branch " in the sketch, and also to examine, 
as far as possible, the features of Route No. 3, between the Valley of the Restigouche, and 
the Valley of the Squatuck, with the view to the connection of these by means of the lateral 
valleys of Green River 

I therefore directed Mr. Ramsay to proceed by the east branch, and to survey by 
way of the southerly opening referred to, until he found the termination of my canoe ex- 
ploration on the Restigouche, if it should prove that the opening led directly to the valley 
of this river. But as it was equally probable that he might find himself descending a 
branch of Green River, in order in this case to cut him off", my own undertaking was at 
the same time to survey from the main Green River eastwardly by its lateral valleys, 
towards the same point on the Restigouche. Mr. Ramsay's course proved to be down the 
branch of Green River distinguished in the sketch as Green River East, and he oppor- 
tunely intersected my exploration a few hours after I had passed. 

The connection with the Restigouche was shortly afterwards made, and the party 
returned with the view to explore north-westwardly for a favorable communication with 
the Squatuck. Some progress was made in the latter object, when another fall of snow 
and the increasing severity of the weather rendered it impossible further to prosecute 
the survey beyond the reach of our canoes, which were left at the main Green River, and 
on which we chiefly depended for our retreat. 

It remains only to state the imperfect knowledge which an unfavorable opportunity 
enabled me to acquire of Route No. 3. I have already remarked that indications existed 
of a favorable communication between the head of the Restigouche and the east branch of 
Green River, if such an object were desirable, either as an imprevement or variation of 
Route No. 1. I have also stated that Route No. 3 is favorable as far as it adheres, to the 
Valley of the Restigouche. From thence to the Valley of the Squatuck, are several 
lateral valleys and openings, which require more or less pains for due examination. 

Jhe only object wtidi a cursory exploration could accomplish, ^yas the discovery ijf 



55 



which of these valleys and openings might appear most entitled to a particular survey. I 
have reason to believe, that practicable lines, approximating to those indicated in the 
sketch, would be found. My opinion is, that the difficulties of this route are confined to 
an aggregate distance of perhaps five or six miles on each side of the Valley of G-reen 
River, and that they are not of great magnitude. 

I have not personally examined, and have only partially seen, the Valley of the 
Squatuck, but it is generally better known than any part of the ground included in this 
survey, and is reported to be, as I believe it is generally, flat and favorable for a line of 
railway. From thence up the Valley of the left-hand branch of Toledi to the intersection 
of Route No. 1, the ground is flat with a very moderate ascent. 

In the absence of barometers, by which to obtain an approximate section of the routes, 
as far as traced, the apparently difficult inclinations were occasionally tested by angles of 
elevation and depression ; and from these, checked by the approximately known height of 
several points in the country examined, the assumed rates of inclination have been 
inferred. They would in most instances, I believe, prove to exceed what in actual con- 
struction would be necessary. 

I may remark with regard to the habitable character of the routes, as far as examined, 
that No. 3 would be the most favorable for continuous settlement from the Valley of 
the Tobique to the Valley of the St. Lawrence. 

Probably one-third, consisting of the more elevated parts of Route No. 1, would be 
unfavorable for settlement. Route No. 3, as far as examined, would not be suitable for 
cultivation immediately along the line, except at a few detached points, on account of the 
very broken and precipitous character of the banks of the Quatawamkedgwick. 

I believe that each of the routes described, necessarily in very general terms, is prac- 
ticable, as far as I have examined the same. Of the degree of practicability, or of the 
probable expense of construction, I conceive that no safe opinion could be formed without 
an approximate location. To discover what route or routes may be most eligible for 
preliminary survey, I deem to be the object of the exploration. A judgment upon this 
point with regard to any subdivision, must of course be materially governed by its rela- 
tionship to the whole line. As far, therefore, as it may be either my duty ©r privilege, to 
off"er an opinion, it is, upon its special merits, in favor of Route No. 3 ; and more generally 
because upon both national and colonial grounds, it appears most desirable to avoid any 
unnecessary deviation from the most direct line between the Bend of Petitcodiac and the 
River du Loup, which the natural facilities of the country will permit. 

I have, &c., 
(Signed,) J. WILKINSON. 

Major W. Robinson, R.E., 

Commissioner of Quebec and Halifax Railway 
Exploratory Survey, &c., &c. 



APPENDIX NO. 4. 

Plans Referred to :— No3.20, 21, 22, 23. 

Report on a Line of Railway from Whitehaven to Amherst. 

Halifax, March 14, 1848. 

Sir, — Having been directed by you to explore and report upon the capability of the 
country for a line of railroad from Whitehaven to Amherst, we have attended to that duty, 
and beg leave to lay before you the following Report : — 

The general iormation of the country consists of long continuous ridges, with valleys 
between them, in an eastern and western direction. One of these ridges commenoea at 



5(3 



Cape Canso, passes Country Harbour, runs westerly on tlie soutli of the west brancli of 
the St. Mary River, and continues onwards to the western parts of the Province. The 
crest of the ridge is near the northern side, whence it slopes gently to the sea-coast; the 
height is about 600 or 700 feet. It is cut through by the Valleys of Country Harbour 
River and of the St. Mary. There are several indentations across it between Country 
Harbour and Canso; viz., from New Harbour to Salmon River, about ten miles above its 
mouth; from Torbay, by Ingersol Betts Lake, to Salmon River, near its mouth; from 
Whitehaven to Crow Harbour; and from White Point to Pox Island. 

Northwardly of this ridge there is another range of high lands, which, commencing 
at Cape Porcupine on the Gut of Canso, runs parallel to the former, and terminates in the 
highland southward and eastward of Truro. It is cut across by indentations from Country 
Harbour to Antigonish; from Glenelg to Antigonish, by College Lake; from Glenelg to 
Merigonish, by the east branch of the St. Mary and the French River, and by way of the 
East River to Pictou ; also from Upper Stewiacke to Pictou, by the Middle River ; 
besides several minor indentations. This ridge is of about the same general height 
as the former. 

Between these ridges is a valley running from Chedabucto Bay, on the east, to the 
Basin of Mines, on the west. It is interrupted by some hills at the head of the Ste- 
wiacke, but it generally preserves the character of a continuous valley. The highest parts 
at the bottom of this valley, more immediately connected with the present survey, are 
between Guysborough and Country Harbour, about the head of Salmon River, and between 
Country Harbour and the St. Mary at Glenelg. 

The latter of these is found, by barometrical measurement, at the place where we 
crossed with the line, to be 226 feet above the sea; the former appears to be about the 
same height. 

The rock formation of the southern ridge is generally granite and various kinds of 
trap ; that of the northern, coarse slates and shales, variously inclined to the horizon, but 
mostly vertical, with some patches of trap. 

The valley is soft sandstone and slate in layers, horizontal, or but slightly inclined. 

The coasts of the Atlantic and Chedabucto Bay are, so far as we could observe, com- 
posed of slate and shales of various kinds ; the trap rocks, being confined to the high 
grounds. The general direction of the strata of these rocks is S. 60 E. by N. 60 W. 

Our first care was to make enquiry of surveyors and others acquainted with the 
peninsula on which Whitehaven stands, as to its general features; and we were informed 
that the coast was rugged, but that in the interior there were extensive elevated flats, 
which, once gained, but little difficulty would be experienced in proceeding. 

We accordingly adopted that course, and found a barren, rocky country, with elevated 
grounds, intersected with deep hollows, running across the course of the line. We pur- 
sued this line as far as Ingersol Betts Lake, and then abandoned it. It was now settled 
that we must either find a passage along the coast to Country' Harbour, or get through 
to the northern side of the ridge, and follow the Valley of the Salmon River ; but as 
this was known to be rough and difficult, and withal circuitous, we resolved to make the 
first trial upon the coast. 

Commencing at Whitehaven, at A, near Haulover Cove, the line may be carried 
across a level neck of land to Molasses Harbour, and thence along the shore to that 
harbour to B, at its head. Thence about three-eighths of a mile up a pretty deep valley, 
brings us to the water-shed C, between Molasses Harbour and an extensive bay on a pretty 
large stream which flows into Cole Harbour at D. This water-shed is only about 20 feet 
above the high-tide mark, giving a passage as easy as can be desired. 

The length of this section, A to D, is about eight miles. 

From D to E, four miles, the line is along the shore, passing through low points of 
ground and shallow bays. On this section cuttings and embankments of about 20 feet at 
greatest will produce undulations within 40 feet to the mile. 

From E to F, at the head of Torbay, six miles, there is a belt of flat ground between 
the high lands and the sea coast, upon which the road can be carried so level as to 
require no particular remark. 

From F to G, across the peninsula,. 3} miles. The highest part of this section is 
within 30 chains of Fj and about 64 feet above the sea ; thence it is nearly level to within 



57 



half a mile of the coast, where it is 50 feet in height ; from which place it may descend, 
with a uniform grade of 40 feet to the mile, to G. 

From G to the head of New Harbour at I, about two miles, there are several bluffs 
of slate rock, one of which will require a deep cut, or possibly a tunnel of about 800 
yards in length. 

Or, by passing over a rid2^c of about 100 feet in height at K, which may be done at 
grades of about 50 feet per mile, a mile and three-quarters would be saved in distance 
between Torbay and New Harbour; the expense not greater than by the shore. This 
will probably be found to be the most eligible route. 

From New Harbour to L, Coddles Harbour, four miles; for the first two miles of 
this section, a track may be obtained quite smooth and level, on the remaining two miles 
there are a number of small slate ridges, about 30 or 40 feet high, with valleys but little 
above the sea level between them. 

The direction of the strata is S. 60 E. by N. 60 W. They have not been examined, 
but it is probable that some of them will have to be cut through. 

From Coddles Harbour at >i, to the head of Isaac's Haibour, 8^ miles, there is but 
little difficulty in getting along the shore, except about a mile and a half at Coddles Har- 
bour, where there is some broken ground that has not been particularly examined, but we 
do not apprehend much difficulty with that part. The remainder of the shore is sufficiently 
flat. It is supposed that a straight line can be found from L to M, but this has not been 
examined. 

Between Isaac's Harbour and Country Harbour, three miles, is a ridge of 18-1 feet in 
height at N, which is its lowest part. On the (astern side of this ridge, from M to N, the 
rise is one in thirty-two; on the western side, from N to 0, ths descent may be brought to 
eighty feet to the mile. 

It is possible that a better passage may be found about a mile to the northward; it 
has not been examined, but from the general formation of the country, there seems but 
little hopes of success. 

It is probable that the only alternative in crossing this ridge, will be the employment 
of stationary power, or the tunneling of about a mile in length through whin rock. 

From to P, about seven miles, there is between the hills which bound the valley 
and the water, a range of low ground with an irregular surface, upon which a line may be 
carried, so as to produce nearly a level by cuttings and embankiugs of twenty feet at the 
maximum. 

Turning off at P, we proceed up the Valley of AVest Brook, a small stream which flows 
along the northern base of the southern ridge of hills formerly mentioned. Near the head 
of this stream at K, there is a water-shed, from which waters flow to the St. Mary by 
McKeen's Brook. The distance from the mouth of the West Brook to B, is four miles, and 
theheight, by barometer, 226 feet; giving an ascent of 56 feet per mile. The cheapest route 
is along West Brook, the valley of which appears open and smooth; but if it be required 
to reduce the grade, the ascent may commence one or two miles further down Country 
Harbour River, keeping along the face of the highlands as shown by the line on the 
plan. The face of the highlands along the river is steep and broken, and would probably 
require a heavy expense, but along West Brook it appears pretty even. 

Bj carrying the line to the river, one mile below the mouth of West Brook, the 
grade would be reduced to 45 feet per mile. 

From B to S, two miles, — there are several small lakes with low ridges of ground 
between, which we did not particularly examine, but as seen from the road, we concluded 
it will be quite practicable to find a tolerably fair line between the lakes; the average 
descent will be about 15 feet per mile. Thence to T, at the St. Mary, 3^ miles, there is 
the Valley of McKeen's Brook, which, as appears, is smooth and open ; the descent is 
about 40 feet per mile. 

From T to Mr. Alexander Sutherland's, the highest settlement on the east branch of 
the St. Mary, 13 miles, the valley is, with few exceptions, pretty broad, with intervals 
along the river, and will present no obstacles except from frv^shets We could not ascer- 
tain the depth of the freshets very corr3ctIy, but from information, and from ice-marks on 
trees, we conclude it would not exceed four feet. 

The river may have to be crossed several times. The sectional area of water-way 
8 



58 



required, will be from 300 to 500 square feet, according as the bridge may be higher or 
lower ou the stream. The height of the river intervale at Sutherland's is, by a mean of 
five observations, 194 feet above the sea ; and by a mean of two observations on different 
days, the height of T at McKeen's Brook is 54 feet, giving a rise of 140 feet in 13 miles, — 
about 11 feet per mile. 

At about a mile above Mr. Sutherland's is the foot of the Falls, where the river 
descends in a rocky crooked channel, between cliffs of trap-rock, 90 feet in about a mile. 
This is a formidable obstacle ; the river is too crooked to admit of a line in the chasm 
through which it flows, and the hills on the western side are high and steep ; it will 
therefore be necesoary to cut across the point on the eastern side. On this side we have, 
at the head of the Falls, a narrow ridge of trap-rock, of 60 feet in height, jutting upon 
the river from the eastward ; and at the foot of the Falls, a deep valley, in which flows 
Campbell's Brook, coming in also from the east ; both of which must be crossed. The 
valley will require a bridge or embankment of 500 feet in length and 30 or 40 feet in 
height, and the ridge, a tunnel of a quarter of a mile in length. By these means a grade 
of 60 feet to the mile may be obtained, as shown by the section. 

Southwards of Campbell's Brook there does not appear to be any obstruction to a 
descending grade of 40 feet per mile, along the river hills down stream to the level of the 
river. 

From the Falls to Lake Eden, about two miles, there are no difficulties : the banks 
in some places are near the river, and flat ground between them of moderate breadth ; but 
there appears to be sufficient room for fair curvatures, though it may be necessary to cross 
the river two or three times. The rise in these two miles is about 15 feet. 

From Lake Eden to Beaver Lake, about four miles, the line may pass close along the 
southern shore of Lake Eden, under a high range of hills, about a mile, to the entrance of 
a range of ponds and low ground two miles in length, leading westward to Beaver Lake — 
the head of the East Eiver of Pictou. The height of Lake Eden above the level of high 
tide at Pictou is, by a mean of nine barometrical observations, taken on three successive 
days, 381 feet; Beaver Lake is, by a mean of five observations, taken on two different days, 
398 feet above the same datum, and 17 feet above Lake Eden. 

The water-shed between Lake Eden and Beaver Lake, at U, is within half a mile of 
the latter, about 40 feet above Lake Eden, and 23 feet above Beaver Lake. 

There may be a uniform grade from Lake Eden to U, and from U, by the southern 
side of Beaver Lake, for about a mile and a half; giving for the former 30 feet and for 
the latter 16 feet to the mile. 

From the foot of a range of flats connected with Beaver Lake, the East River of 
Pictou, which is here of a small size, begins to descend between high banks to the bridge 
on the St. Mary's Boad, six miles. On this section the line must follow the river flats, 
which appear sufficiently wide to admit of fair curvatures, except a distance of about 
three-eighths of a mile above the bridge, when it will be necessary to run through a valley 
on the southern side, to avoid a narrow crooked channel through which the river flows 
between limestone rocks. On this section the river will have to be crossed several times. 
The section of water-way of the bridges may be from 100 square feet, near Beaver Lake, 
increasing as we descend to 300 feet. The flowage of the intervals does not exceed three 
feet. 

The average descent will be, for the first three miles, about 15 feet, and for the re- 
mainder 33 feet per mile. 

From the St. Mary's Boad to Grant's Bridge, seven miles, the valley is broad and 
contains large intervals. The line, by cutting through some low upland points may be 
carried pretty straight. The average descent is about ten feet per mile. 

From Grant's Bridge to the foot of the rapids, near three miles, the river is crooked 
and confined between highlands of stratified sandstone and limestone, several points of 
which would have to be cut through. 

This will be an expensive section. There is one circumstance, however, that would 
tend virtually to reduce the expense ; the stone, owing to its structure and dip, which is 
about 50 degrees with the horizon, will bo easily quarried, and will come in for drains, 
ballast, &c., on the road, as cheap, probably, as materials would from any other source. It 
will also open some capital limestone quarries, and it is not improbable that building stone 



59 



would be met with, though we did not observe any seams of the sandstone sufficiently 
thick for that purpose. The average descent of this section is about 40 feet per mile. 

From the foot of the Kapids to the Fish Pools, three miles, the line must keep along 
the river. 

There will be little cutting through points, but it is likely there will be some bridging. 
The grade will be about 40 feet to the mile. 

From Grant^s Bridge, mentioned above, to the Fish Pools, there will be several 
bridges. It is impossible, by a mere passing glance at the river, to even guess very cor- 
rectly at the number ; but it is not likely that there will be less than five or six. 
The span may be about 60 feet, till we get below the west branch, when it may be 
enlarged to 80 feet. The bottom is of rock ; and it is not unlikely that stone for the abut- 
ments will be found in the excavations for the road. 

From the Fish Pools to the height of land between the Albion Mines and M'Culloch's 
Brook, at V, about three miles, there is a rise of about 133 feet. The ground will admit 
of a uniform grade, being about 44 feet per mile. At the Fish Pool it will be necessary 
to cross the river upon a bridge 30 feet in height, in order to get upon a ridge of toler- 
ably level ground immediately above the steep banks of the river. 

From V to Middle River at W, three miles, there is a dip of 40 feet into the Valley 
of M'Culloch's Brook, and then a swell of ground between this valley and Middle River. 
This swell may be crossed at grades of about 60 feet to the mile. 

From W to H, two miles, the ground rises about 70 feet, being an average of 35 feet 
to the mile. It will be necessary to cross the Middle River, at the height of 40 or 50 
feet, in order to get upon a flat table of ground on its western side. 

From X to the West River at Y, four miles, there is a descent of 172 feet. The 
ground will admit of a nearly uniform grade, averaging about 43 feet per mile; 

From y to Z, 11 mile, there is a rise of nearly 80 feet, giving an average of 53 feet 
per mile. The ground, though somewhat rough in some places, does not appear to contain 
any very formidable obstructions to a regular grade. 

The point Z is on a flat table-land, from which the line runs off to the westward. 

From Z to A', 2^ miles, the line passes over some undulations into the Valley of the 
Saw Mill Brook, thence up that stream in a broad valley, which, continuing westerly, be- 
comes the bed of Black River, a branch of the River John. 

The height of the water-shed between Saw Mill Brook and Black River at A', is 
227 feet above tide-water, and the height at Z 96 feet above the same datum ; the difter- 
ence is 131 feet, and distance 21 miles, giving an average of 58 feet per mile. 

It is likely that a uniform grade can only be obtained on this section by means of a 
good deal of earth-work. By embanking 16 feet at Y, and cutting 29 feet at A', the 
grade from Y to A, may be brought to 47 feet per mile ; and from the peculiar form of 
the ground, it does not seem likely that there would be much additional expense. 

From A' to the mouth of Black River, 8 J miles, the valley is nearly half a mile 
broad, the stream meandering through flat lands with a sluggish current, showing the fall 
to be very trifling. 

The height at the mouth of Black River is not measured, but may be supposed about 
] 00 feet, and the descent along the valley 14 feet per mile. 

It will not be expedient to cross the River John below the mouth of Black River, 
because, though the general surface of the country is level, the river flows in a deep, 
narrow valley which would have to be crossed. Above this place the banks are low, and 
moreover advantage may be taken of the Valley of Nabiscump Brook, to obtain an easy 
rise to the table-land on the west of the river. 

From the Forks of River John, mouth of Black River, we did not travel through the 
country, but ascertained it to be of the same character as the region along Black River, — 
a flat country, with sluggish streams flowing through it, and offering no material obstruc- 
tion to the formation of a railroad. 

From Waugh River, Tatamagouche, tovv'ards Amherst, we made no observations 
relative to this line, but the country is known to be so level that there would be little or 
no difficulty in getting a good railroad line across it. 

With regard to curvatures, from our limited means of making up a judgment, we can 
say but little ; but from the slight observations that we were enabled to make, we think 
there will be none of less radius than half a mile. 



60 

The distances are as follows : — 

Miles. 

From Whitebavea to Cole Harbour 8 

Cole Harbour to Torbay 8 

Torbay to New Harbour 5J 

New Harbour to Isaac's Harbour \ 12^ 

Isaac's Harbour to Country, Mr. Archibald's 6 

— 40 

Country Harbour to Glenelg 13^ 

Glenelg to the summit of the highlands two miles west of Lake Eden. 20 
Summit of highlands to Albion Mines 21 

— 54i 

Albion Mines to "West "River 10 

West River to Kivcr John 12J 

— 22^ 

River John to Tatamsgouche , 14 

Tatamagouche to Wallace , , 12 

Wallace to the Province Line at Otter Creek 38 

— 64 

Total from Whitehaven to the Western Boundary of the Province. 181 

Respecting the ice at Whitehaven, the result of a good deal of enquiry amongst 
the inhabitants, and of shipmasters accustomed to the navigation of the coast, is as 
follows: — That the harbcur is frozen regularly in winter as far down as Fisherman's 
Island. Haulover Cove is also regularly frozen. Beyond these limits, though it is some- 
times frozen, the liability does not seem to be; greater than in Halifax Harbour. It was in 
consequence of this information that we fixed upon the point A for the terminus of the 
line. The ground will admit of a branch to the upper part of the harbour, which we have 
shown upon the plan. 

The sea ice breaks up in March, and floats to the southward ; that which passes 
through the Gut of Canso is in no great quantity, and in ordinary weather is set oflf by 
the current of Chedabucto Bav towards Sabla Island. The main body of ice met with in 
that sea, passes eastwardly of Cape Breton, and with northerly and westerly winds is 
carried out to sea; but easterly weather brings it on to the coast of Nova Scotia. We 
could not learn that Whitehaven had ever been completely closed with this ice, but it has 
often been in such quantity as to make navigation in the night dangerous, and sometimes, 
at distant intervals of time, it has been in such quantity as to make the approach in 
dajlight very difficult. On the whole it would appear that between the last of February 
and last of April, it may be accounted dangerous for a steamer to run in the night near 
Cape Breton, and direct from thence to Whitehaven ; as there would be almost a certainty 
of having to cross a stream of floating ice in some part of this sea, though it but seldom 
happens that it approaches Whitehaven. 

All which is respectfully subj^itted by, 

Yours, &e., 
(Signed,) GEORGE WIGHTiMAN. 

A. CALDER, 
Sergeantj Royal Sappers and JUinerg. 
Major W. Robinson, R.I., 

APPENDIX NO. 6. 

Remarhs on the inner jp art of tJie Entrance of Whitehaven. 

Columbia, Halifax, N. S., 

August 27, 1846. 
Sir,— In pursuance of your orders, I have made a rough sketch of the inner part of 



I 



I 



61 



the Entrance of Whiteliaven, which, "with the accompanying remarks, I beg to submit for 
your consideration : — 

In fine clear weather, and by day-light, the approach to Whitehaven is easy, the shores 
b3ing bold, and no out-lying dangers, if we except two rocks nearly a mile distant from 
the shores of White Island, one to the south-west and the other to the south-east. These 
generally break and so show themselves. 

White Island forms the turning point of the shore of Nova Scotia, as it deflects toward 
the northward to Canseau. The white rocks, and its elevation of 140 feet, make it stand 
out prominently, and easily distinguish it. 

There are several channels in Whitehaven. Three can be used by steamers of any 
size. The middle, which is between White Island and the ledges to its westward, appears 
to be best, is about 250 fathoms broad in its narrow<^st part, and carries bold water on both 
sides, and is besides the shortest and most direct, not exceeding half a mile in length. 
However, as the directions of the channels differ, and all radiate nearly from the same 
point, a sailing vessel can use the most favorable with respect to the winds. The western 
is also a very good channel, and is preferable for vessels going or coming from that direc- 
tion. The soundings without this harbour are (near the shore) very irregular, especially 
in the approach to the eastern channel, which is also injured for vessels of large draught 
of water, by a rocky patch of thirteen or fourteen ieet water. It is situated near the 
entrance, and rather more than one-third across channel, from the small island (Grassy 
Patch) off White Island. 

When inside the harbour, care must bo taken, as there are several shoal rocky patches 
(see Plan), which render the navigation difficult to strangers, and require to be well deter- 
mined and buoyed, should the harbour be used for commercial purposes. There is an 
abundance of safe anchorage, with good holding ground, black muddy bottom, land-locked, 
and perfectly smooth. 

In foggy weather this harbour is difficult of approach, especially to a stranger, as the 
soundings inshore are very irregular; and I have not been able to learn any good indica- 
tions of its vicinity to be gathered from the lead, so as to render its approach by that means 
certain ; and Torbay, its immediate neighbour to the westward, is a dangerous place to get 
into. 

From the fishermen and small coasters I understand the currents round the point are 
uncertain, and generally depend on the wind, though the prevailing current is to westward. 

I experienced the current in a boat when I visited the outer break; it was then set- 
ting to the westward at the rate of one mile and a half per hour at least. I also perceived 
vessels in the offing setting rapidly in the same direction ; the breeze was from the east- 
ward and light, though it had previously blown hard from the same point. We also, in 
our passage from Halifax to Canseau, during a fog, with the wind from the south-west, 
experienced an easterly current; but the land once made, the harbour is easily attained, 
especially by a steamer. 

A judicious arrangement of fog-signals and light-houses, with buoys on the principal 
dangers, and a good survey, with the sea-soundings well laid down, would make the 
approach in the night or during fogs attended with small danger to a careful seaman. 

Latitude of observation, Eock Whitehaven, 45° 14' 0" N. Longitude of observation, 
Rock Whitehaven, 61° IV 4" W. Variation, 21° 42' 20" W. Rise of tide from three to 
six feet. High water at the change of the moon, 7h. 40m. 

In the Admiralty Plan of this place, the general features and soundings appear correct, 
if we accept some of the inner dangers, which are not noticed ; but the scale is discrepant. 

I have, &c., 

(Signed,) P. FRED. SHORTLAND, 

Lieutenant and Commander. 

The Hon. W. F. Owen, Captain, R.N., 
&c., &c., &c. 



62 



{Received from Mr. Des Barres, Solicitor General j May 2, 1848.) 

To the Board of Directors of the Projected Railroad from Nova Scotia to Quebec : 

GrENTLEMEN, — We, the Undersigned, Magistrates of the County of Guysborough in the 
Province of Nova Scotia, hereby beg to state, that believing a Report to have been made 
to the surveying party engaged in the survey of the contemplated railroad from this Pro- 
vince to Quebec, and that such Report has been made by certain inhabitants in the Settle- 
ment of Torbay, near Whitehead, who supposed (in ignorance of the nature of such lines 
of communication) that the present facilities of intercourse with the interior of the country 
for purposes of procuring fuel from the woodlands, &c., would be entirely broken up in 
the event of the railroad terminus being at Whitehaven, and therefore have stated to the 
surveying party on the Whitehead Route, that the "winter navigation to the spacious 
harbour of Whitehead is quite impracticable from ice/' 

We therefore, in view of the injurious tendency that such false information is calcu- 
lated to produce on the minds of those unacquainted with the locality referred to, have 
obtained the accompanying affidavits of persons residing at Whitehead, and likewise of 
captains of coasting vessels residing in other places in this Province, and of long experience 
in the winter navigation on the coast of said Province, testifying to the capabilities of 
Whitehead Harbour at all seasons of the year. 

To all of which we, as the residing Magistrates of the County of Guysborough, wherein 
Whitehead is situated, beg hereby to record our certificate of their correctness. 

Dated at Canso, Nova Scotia, January, 1848. 

(Signed,) Robert Hartshorn, J. P. 



R. M. Cutler, J.P., 
Wentworth Taylor, J.P., 
E. H. Waucheville, J.P., 
Abr. N. Whiteman, J. p.,* 
W. J. Beylou, J.P., 
David Dobson, J.P.,t 
E. J. Cunningham, J.P., 
William Hart, J.P., 
Francis Cook, J.P., 
R. V. Reefeman, J.P. 



Copies of affidavits referred to in the above communication, 

(!■) 

William Spears, of Whitehaven, in the County of Guysborough, fisherman, maketh 
oath and saith, — That he hath resided at Whitehead aforesaid for twenty-eight years, and 
is well acquainted with the Harbour of Whitehead aforesaid, and also with the drift ice 
which passes from the eastward, also from the Gut of Canso to the westward, in the spring 
of the year; that the ice seldom comes into the said harbour in large bodies, and very 
seldom remains there long enough to prevent vessels entering the said harbour at any time 
of the year, it being carried away by the winds and currents, and dispersed over the ocean, 
generally in a south-westerly direction ; that during deponent's residence at the said har- 
bour he has not known a day on which vessels of the largest class would be prevented 
entering therein by ice, the said harbour being perfectly accessible at all seasons of the 
year. 
. Sworn before me, at Whitehead, this 25th day of December, A.D., 1847. 

(Signed,) DAVID DOBSON, J.P. 



*One affidavit sworn before bim, January 14, 1848. 

f Four affidavits, December 25; One affidavit, January 12, 



63 



(2.) 

Robert Spears, of Whitehead, in the County of Gruysborough, fisherman, maketh oath 
and saith, — That he hath resided at Whitehead aforesaid for twenty-eight years ; that he 
is well acquainted with the Harbour of Whitehead, and also with the action of the ice 
which occasionally comes through the Gut of Canso, and also round the Island of Cape 
Breton, passing on to the westward, in the spring of the year; that the ice very seldom 
comes into the said harbour in large bodies, and very seldom remains therein long enough 
to prevent vessels entering the said harbour at any time of the year, it being carried away 
by the winds and currents, and dispersed over the ocean, generally in a south-westerly 
direction; that during this deponent's residence at the said harbour, he never knew the 
ice to come into the said harbour in a large quantity but ooce, and that was in the year 
1828, and then not to prevent vessels to enter said harbour, the harbour being perfectly 
safe and accessible at all seasons of the year. 

(Signed,) ROBERT SPEARS. 

Sworn before me, at Whitehead^ this 25th day of December, 1847. 

(Signed,) DAVID DOBSON, J.P. 



(3.) 

John 3Iunrow, of Whitehead, in the County of Guysborough, fisherman, maketh oath 
and saith, — That he hath resided at Whitehead thirty years; that he is well acquainted 
with the Harbour of Whitehead, and also with the navigation of tha said harbour, from 
the entrance to the extremity; that he is acquainted with the action of the ice, which 
occasionally makes its appearance off the said harbour, passing on in a south-westerly 
direction; that it seldom comes in in large bodies, and very rarely remains therein long- 
enough to prevent vessels conveniently entering the said harbour at any time of the year, 
it being generally carried away by the winds and currents, and dispersed over the ocean in 
a south-westerly direction ; that during this deponent's residence at the said harbour, he 
has never known a day on which vessels of the largest class would be prevented entering 
therein by ice, the said harbour being perfectly safe and accessible at all seasons of the 
year. 

his 

(Signed,) JOHN x MUNROW. 

mark. 

Sworn before me, at Whitehead, this 25th day of December, 1847. 

(Signed,) DAVID DOBSON, J.P. 



(4.) 
John Feltmate, of Whitehead, in the County of Guysborough, fisherman, maketh 
oath and saith, — That he hath resided at Whitehead aforesaid for twelve years ; that he is 
acquainted with the action of the ice, which occasionally comes through the Gut of Canso 
and around the Island of Cape Breton, and which passes Cape Canso to the westward in the 
spring of the year ; that the ice very seldom comes into the Harbour of Whitehead aforesaid 
in large bodies, and never remains there long enough to prevent vessels entering the said 
harbour at any time of the year, it being carried away by the winds and currents, and dis- 
persed over the ocean, generally in a south-westerly direction ; that during this deponent's 
residence at the said harbour, he has but once only known a few clumpits of ice to come 
into the said harbour, which went out the next day ; and has not known a day during the 
above period on which vessels of the largest size would be prevented entering therein by 
the ice, the said harbour being perfectly free and accessible at all seasons of the year. 

(Signed,) JOHN FELTMATE. 

Sworn before me, at Half Island Cove, in the said County, this 25th day of Decem- 
ber, 1847. 

(Signed,) DAVID DOBSON, J.P. 



64 



(5.) 

Thomas Monro^ of Whiteliead, in the County of Guysborough, mariner, maketh oath 
and saith, — That he hath resided at Whitehead aforesaid about twenty-eight years, and 
during the greater part of the years aforesaid owned a vessel and sailed her as master; that 
he is well acquainted with the action of the ice which occasionally appears off Whitehead, 
passing on in an oblique direction from the shore to the south-west; that the ice never 
during his residence at said harbour came in in large bodies but once, and remained but a 
short time ; with this one exception, deponent does not remember one day that vessels of the 
largest class would be prevented entering said harbour, it being perfectly safe and accessible 
at all seasons of the year ; deponent further saith, that he hath been coasting to Halifax, 
and all along the shores of Nova Scotia, at all seasons of the year, and has never, on his 
return or outset, been prevented going or entering the aforesaid harbour during the time 
of his residing as aforesaid. 

(Signed,) THOMAS MONRO. 

Sworn before me, at Whitehead, this 12th day of January, A.D. 184S. 

* (Signed,) DAYID DOBSON, J.P. 



(6.) 
Abraham Whiteman, of Canso, in the County of Guysborough, maketh oath and 
saith, — That he is now in the eighty-seventh year of his age, and that he was a coasting 
trader on the coast of Nova Scotia for more than half a century and was in and about 
Whitehead, on the coast of said Province, at all times of the year, and always found the 
harbour there accessible and perfectly safe at all times. 

(Signed,) ABRAHAM WHITEMAN. 

Sworn before me, at Canso, January 14, 1848. 

(Signed,) ABRAHAM N. WHITEMAN. 



Heads of information obtained by Cavtain Henderson^ Royal Ungineers, at Whitehaven, 

in ^October, 1847. 

The ice from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, &c., comes round Cape Breton and through 
the Gut of Canso, in the spring of the year, and is brought by the easterly wind off the 
N. E. coast of Nova Scotia, and if the wind chops round to the southward, it drives this 
ice into Whitehaven, Torbay, &o. 

The harbour had been blockaded nine or ten times in the recollection of my informant, 
who had lived en that coast for nearly forty years. 

Four years ago the Harbour of Whitehaven was blocked up with drift ice for about 
ten days. 

Generally speaking, it is more or less incommoded by drift ice, every two or three 
years. 

It was frozen over in the^winter of 1846-47, five or six inches thick all the way down 
to Big Island, at t1ie mouth of the harbour. 

This was consider-^.d unusual, ns it requires the weather to be cold and very calm to 
freeze so much of the harbour. It freezes, however, every winter as far down as the long 
point opposite Fisherman's Island. 

(Signed,) E. W. HENDERSON. 

Captain y Royal Engineers. 



65 

APPENDIX No. 6. 

Report of the Sub- Committee, to wJiom tvas re/erred the communication from Lieutenant 
E. Walcott Henderson, Royal Engineers. 

Council Koom of the Quebec Board of Trade, 
Quebec, May 12, 1847. 

The Sub-Committee, to whom was referred the coummunicatioQ from Lieutenant E. 
Walcott Henderson, Royal Engineers, have to Report that, owing to the manner the ac- 
counts are kept at the custom-house, and the nature of the trade wUh the Lower Ports, the 
value of the imports and exports cannot with any degree of accuracy be ascertained, and 
more especially to that portion of our trade with Gaspe, as, being in the Province, a mere 
matter of form of clearance and entry inwards is observed. 

Your Committee beg to hand at foot a statement of the number of clearances and 
arrivals to and from the various ports named in Lieutenant E. Walcott Henderson^s letter, 
for which they are indebted to the Collector of the Customs, and although they abstain 
from giving the nature of the cargoes, owing to the causes above stated, they would remark, 
that, with the exception of but one vessel which cleared in ballast, the remainder had 
cargoes ; those from Halifax in general with valuable cargoes of West India Produce, and 
from the other ports, fish and oils. The outward cargoes consisted almost exclusively of 
flour, provisions, &c. 

With respect to the eastern ports of new Brunswick, your Committee are not of 
opinion that the trade between that portion of the above Province and Canada has materi- 
ally increased within the last few years ; and with respect to the trade with ports in the 
Bay of Fundy, regret to say that it has all but ceased, which your Committee attribute to 
the changes in the Imperial laws, more especially the Act passed in 1842, generally called 
Gladstone's Act ; before the passing of which all American provisions, by passing through 
the Canadas, were allowed to take the privileges and character of Canada produce and 
imported into our sister colonies as such, but with that change all inducements to receive 
their supplies from this ceased, as the proximity of those ports to Boston and New 
York, and the cheapness of breadstufts and provisions in those markets, oifered superior 
advantages, and the result has been as stated ; the same remarks apply, to some extent, 
to Halifax, and other ports in Nova Scotia, where merchants, from their large increasing 
trade with Boston, by shipments of coals, plaster, &c., are enabled to take advantage by 
the return vessels of very moderate rates of freights, and a selection from a comparative 
cheap market. 

With Gaspe the trade has been gradually increasing, and your Committee confi- 
dently look forward to be able to report the same with respect to our sister colonies, as 
our unrivalled canals are now being brought to a completion, and the spring of 1848 will 
see a fresh trade with the west brought into existence, and craft containing three to five 
thousand barrels of flour loading in Lakes Erie, Michigan, and Ontario, brought to our 
doors. With this a reduction in freights must follow ; and your Committee do not see 
why a barrel of flour or pork cannot be sold as cheap in Quebec and Montreal as it can in 
New York or Boston ; and if one of the inducements to purchase in the American markets 
is removed, the other, viz., the proximity, will vanish with a railroad communication with 
Halifax, for we do not entertain any doubt but that St. Johns will connect herself with 
the Trunk Line by a branch. 

Among the almost numberless advantages that would follow the building of a railroad, 
both politically and commercially, your Committee would point out the certainty of a 
transportation to a sea-port in cither New Brunswick or Nova Scotia, during the period 
our navigation is impeded with ice, of a large portion of breadstuff's which every winter is 
locked up in Quebec and Montreal, to the great injury of the Province at large, to which 
may bo added the advantage that would follow by the transmission of the mails by the 
road, for which the Government now pay so large a sum for the transmission through the 
United States, which, for many weighty reasons, is objectionable, and, wo may add, off^ensive 
to the feelings of a large portion of the inhabitants of both Canada East aid Canada West. 
9 



66 



The Committee do not conceive they are called on to go into any length on the vast benefits 
that might follow by the line of railroad that is now engaging the attention of Government, 
to which the attention of this Province as well as that of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia 
is so earnestly drawn, and in closing this Report, the Committee would in the most urgent 
manner bring the attention of the Imperial Grovernment, through the present channel of 
communication, to the absolute necessity of freeing the inland navigation of the St. 
Lawrence from all obstructions that now exist, and which prevent American vessels from 
bringing their produce (for your Committee would not recommend their being allowed to 
carry any other than their own) direct to Quebec, or should they wish it, to use our canals 
to take their produce to any market they think proper, without breaking bulk ; this course 
we think highly desirable, as well as the equally desirableness of all our tolls being reduced 
to the lowest practicable scale, which, if followed up, must draw the vast produce of the 
West down our nobJe river, and for which trade there are now so many rivals in the field. 

Arrivals from — 

Vessels. Tons, Men. 

Gasp6 59 2,545 222 

New Carlisle 20 796 71 

Antigonish 16 972 59 

Aichat 14 . ... 792 55 

Bathurst 1 44 3 

Caraquette 7 245 20 

Dalhousie 1 37 3 

Guysborough 4 205 15 

Halifax..... 17 1,257 71 

Miramichi 3 400 30 

Pictou 2 79 6 

Richibucto 7 250 23 

Sydney 3 563 27 

Clearances for— 

Vessels. Tons. Men. 

Aichat 12 749 42 

Bathurst 7 320 25 

Canso 1 68 4 

Caraquette 3 103 10 

Cocayne 1 38 3 

Dalhousie 9 349 30 

Guysborough 2 95 8 

Halifax 18 1,386 74 

Miramichi 27 .-1,376 .... 96 

Pictou 3 184 11 

Richibucto . 9 418 28 

Restigouche 8 315 ...... 23 

Shippigan 1 47 3 

Sydney 2 215 10 

Slielbourne, 1 30 3 

Gasp6 84 3,834 249 

Carleton , 3 107 10 

New Carlisle 10 489 32 



6T 



APPENDIX NO. 7. 

Extract from the Report of the Commissioners appointed hy the Legislature of the State of 
New fork — hy the Act of May 11, 1846 — to locate certain Portions of the New York 
and Erie Railroad — made to the Legislature, January 18, 1847. 

COST OP MOTIVE POWER ON RAILROADS, PER TRAIN, PER MILE. 

1st. Engine-men, Fire-men, and Station-men : — 

Cents. 

Baltimore and Ohio Kailroad 5 

Utica and Schenectady " 8 

Reading " 4.55 

Boston and Worcester " 5.50 

Fitchburgh " 7.00 

30.05 -f 5= 6.01 

New York and Erie " 7.485 

2nd. Fuel:— 

Reading Railroad, Wood S3.50 23.70 

Boston and Worcester '' ^^ 4.90 22.20 

Fitchburgh " '< 4.25 14.17 

Baltimore and Ohio '^ Coal 2.00 8.00 

68.07^-4=17.02 

New York and Erie " 18.09 

3rd. Repairs of Engines and Tenders : — 

Reading Railroad.., 4.90 

Boston and Worcester '^ 9.05 

Utica and Schenectady <^ 7.93 

Fitchburgh " 5.20 

Western (Mass.) " 6.50 

Baltimore and Ohio '' 9.00 

42.58-^6= 7.09 

New York and Erie '' 8.75 

4th. Oil and Cotton Waste : — 

Reading Railroad 1.74 

Boston and Worcester " 1.24 

Fitchburgh " 1.30 

Baltimore and Ohio " 1.46 

5.74-f4= 1.43 

New York and Erie " 2.94 

5th. Interest on cost of Engines : — 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 3.01 

= 3.01 

6th Conductors and Brakemen : — 

Reading Railroad 4.11 

Fitchburgh *' 6.20 

10.31-^2= 5.15 

Take 63 per cent, for brakemen (which is the ratio 

on Reading Road), as conductors should not 
be included, and the expense for brakemen 

is 5.15X. 63=3.14 

Do Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, as per estimate 

for coal trade =2.40 

5.54-^2= 2.77 

New York and Erie Railroad ,.=6.52 



68 



7tb. Kepairs of Railroad, chargeable to Locomotive and Tender : — 

1st. Ordinary repairs ; of these one-fifth is regarded 
as chargeable to motive power : — 

Cents. 

Reading^T* Railroad,.. 13.66 

Boston and Worcester *•■ 18.00 

Boston and Lowell ^' 13.50 

Western (Mass.) " 13.75 

Baltimore and Ohio " 18.30 

77.21-^5=15.44 

and 15.44-^5 == 3.09 

2nd, Deterioration of iron, not yet settled by ex- 
perience. Half of this wear is believed to be 
chargeable to locomotives and tenders, on ac- 
count of their greater weight. Suppose rail cost 
$7,000 per mile, and will bear transport of 
20,000,000 tons on a level road, average (say) 
250 tons freight per train, equal to 80,000 trains. 
The cost per train will be $8.75 ; and half of 

this is 4.37 

7.46 

4i.79 
The weight of engines in the cases above detailed 
is not known, but is supposed to average less 
than 15 tons; for an engine of 20 tons on driving 
wheels would require an additional expense ; but 
the fuel on the line of road under consideration 
would be less expensive, about seven cents, than 
the average for the same size of engine. In 
view of both considerations, it is believed a re- 
duction should be made from the preceding 
result of (say) 4.79 



And the estimate for a 20 ton engine is Cents 40.00 

Forty cents per train per mile, equivalent to Is. Sd. sterling.